Tag Archives: A&P

Putting More Physiology into A & P

thinker-28741_640It’s tough being an undergrad student nowadays.  It’s expensive. State funding has cut into the budgets that used to go to offset tuition, and buildings for new classrooms have been on hold forever. Still they keep coming, paying higher and higher fees and tuition, crowded into larger and larger classroom sizes, getting shut out of labs: these are just the surface to larger problems in general. What kind of education are students getting now?  I ponder this as I teach A & P again after teaching physiology at a medical school for the last six years and A & P in smaller class sizes four years before that at universities and community colleges. Things have changed, and not for the better.  I’ll toss around some ideas that may or may not resonate with you, but these are things I feel we need to improve upon.


  1. How can we get class sizes smaller so we can teach and communicate? The depth of what students know goes not far beyond binge and purge. We can have small group discussion, more TBL and other models for active learning (if they read the pre-class material) and we’ll always have the good students, but for many lectures have become something to avoid. I get students who ask for my PPTs beforehand and use them as note templates, yet many rely on those as a sole source. The chances to integrate material become less frequent as we teach to the room and decrease the amount of material students can absorb. The long term rewards to learning are not being reinforced. I have students submit corrections for points in paragraph form, making them compose answers.


  1. Students need learning skills. Something I learned the hard way, but even in the prehistoric 1970’s note taking was essential. I implore students to do this as a way to create schemas even providing handouts with study skills that I have collected over the last thirty years. Of course the good students use this info, while the middle of the packers might but only after the first exam. We have more students who are being advised that health professions are good careers but not telling them how steep the competition is and how much is expected. Do I want an ED nurse who might forget that NaCl is not the same as KCl? Maybe I don’t have to weed them out, but I want their expectations to be parallel to the challenge and this should be considered the beginning of their career.


  1. Lastly, I propose perhaps a new approach to A & P; let’s separate the classes. Some institutions do this having advanced anatomy and general physiology classes for exercise science, why not do these for pre-health majors as well? The texts nowadays for A & P are humongous, with tons of information that skims the surface without enough integration. Let’s teach physiology with a chance to do more hands-on experiments and not have lab just being anatomy. I poll my students about whether they have seen frog muscle or heart experiments or any Mr. Wizard styled presentations. Few have, maybe from the more affluent secondary schools, therefore descriptions of diffusion or tetanus become an abstraction without the physical connection. They do ECGs and FEV1s in the second half of A & P, why not have that be the whole year?


Personally my career in physiology began when I walked into a behavioral neuroscience lab and ran my own independent study experiments for undergrad credit, all the while learning about the other research going on. I was happy that one of my biology students worked over the summer on an Integrative and Organismal NSF summer fellowship (that I know from my APS Porter Committee membership go underutilized) because statistics show that these students will go on in science.  I’d like to see our future caregivers have that depth as well.





William Johnson received his Master degree in Education from Johns Hopkins University in 1990. After teaching high school on the Dine reservation, he then pursued and obtained his PhD in Biology from Northern Arizonan University, studying angiotensin in desert anurans. After teaching physiology at University of South Florida Colleges of Public Health and Medicine, William has returned to his alma mater to teach anatomy and physiology and human physiology, as well as being involved in the summer program for Journey for Underrepresented in Medical Professions HRSA grant at NAU.