Tag Archives: mentoring

Five Ways to be an Effective Mentor and Mentee

Rachel C. Drew, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Boston

As a relatively new assistant professor in the Department of Exercise and Health Sciences at the University of Massachusetts Boston, there were innumerable things that I needed to learn to smooth the transition into my tenure-track position. One of the most notable, and significant areas not covered in my doctoral and postdoctoral training was how to be a successful mentor to trainees and students working in my research lab. Having earned my bachelor’s degree in sport and exercise science and my PhD in exercise physiology at the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom, followed by completion of my postdoctoral training and a short time as a research associate at Penn State Hershey in Pennsylvania, I learned a great number of things about conducting research. However, I received little training about mentoring. It was not until I was thrust into the position of running my own independent research lab as an assistant professor that I was suddenly very aware that I felt ill-prepared to successfully mentor others. I had only just been a mentee myself, and now I was expected to help shape fully formed trainees who work with me in my lab with no obvious training? “Fake it until you make it” certainly sprang to mind.

After attending many professional development sessions and workshops, and reading numerous articles on mentoring, I learned there are many things that go into being not just a mentor but a good mentor. This article shares what I have learned about how to be a successful mentor in the two years that I have had this seemingly huge responsibility placed on my shoulders. I do not profess to be the best mentor—since it takes years of mentoring experience to achieve that status, but I have learned several nuggets of wisdom. I hope these lessons will benefit other researchers also undergoing this transition.

On the surface, mentoring may seem like a fairly straightforward process of a person with experience or expertise in their respective field providing advice to another person in the same or similar field to help them succeed. However, successful mentoring involves a combination of factors that culminate in a mutually beneficial relationship between the mentor and the mentee, one in which they both gain something positive from their partnership.

These mutually beneficial relationships can take the form of formal or informal mentor-mentee relationships. Formal partnerships can be formed through targeted programs created by professional societies that match interested mentees with willing mentors, which also provide great networking opportunities. Formal partnerships can also be structured partnerships within academic institutions or industrial companies that pair a junior person with a more senior person within the same department, college, campus, university, or company. These relationships can provide helpful inside knowledge relevant to the respective institution or company. However, the expertise of the senior person may not fully align with the specific field in which the junior person is working, because it is the institution or company that brings the mentor and mentee together rather than the same research or teaching interests.

Informal partnerships can be formed through meeting people at conferences and meetings, often through introductions made by colleagues with an existing relationship with the other person. You may also meet potential mentors at workshops and other networking events. I have been introduced by colleagues to numerous people at conferences, and some of those introductions have grown into current research collaborations, an invaluable asset to my research program. I also met a graduate student at a conference poster session who is now a PhD student working in my lab! I now introduce him to people at conferences and other events, so he may benefit from those introductions at some point, thus continuing the networking cycle.

In a mentor-mentee relationship, knowing what will be necessary for the mentee to succeed requires a conversation about what the mentee wants to achieve. This conversation should happen at the beginning of the relationship. The mentor can then draw on their experiences in their specific field to help guide the mentee in appropriate ways. Typically in a successful mentor-mentee relationship, the mentee provides the energy, and the mentor can help steer the mentee in the right direction, much like a human equivalent of a car engine and steering wheel. This effective mentor-mentee partnership results in a “win-win” for both people. The mentee can learn from the advice and support provided by the mentor as an experienced person in their field to help them succeed, and the mentor can help newer people in their field grow and become successful, serving their professional community as well as gaining personal satisfaction. Both of these successes contribute to the advancement of the respective field, highlighting the importance of successful mentoring.

The relationship between mentor and mentee is dependent on many factors, such as the academic level of both individuals, the nature of the institution or company in which they work, and their respective personalities. It can also be influenced by both individuals’ cultural backgrounds, gender, age, race, religion, sexuality, gender identity, physical ability, socioeconomic status, and other factors. Knowingly or unknowingly, any of these factors can affect this relationship, so it is important to understand that individuals’ implicit biases against certain groups of people exist (as well as explicit biases, in some cases) and that we recognize these biases rather than ignoring them or pretending they do not exist. There is a growing awareness of the need for diversification of the scientific workforce that is leading to the creation of initiatives aimed at recruiting and retaining people in traditionally underrepresented groups in science, such as the National Institute of Health’s (NIH’s) Scientific Workforce Diversity Office (https://diversity.nih.gov). According to NIH, traditionally underrepresented groups include women, certain racial groups including black people or African-Americans, Hispanics or Latinos, American Indians or Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, people with disabilities, people from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds, and people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer. Scientific progress is at its best when viewpoints from multiple different backgrounds and experiences are voiced and heard. Mentoring is a crucial area of science in which individuals from all backgrounds and experiences can be included and starting early in their careers. Mentor-mentee relationships do not always come without their challenges. There can be differences in personalities that make it more difficult for the partnership to be a fruitful one. There can be time constraints, particularly for the mentor, who is typically more established in their field than the mentee and often has other commitments that require more of their time or more immediate attention. The mentee may be seeking advice on a particular topic that a specific mentor cannot provide. Some of these obstacles can be avoided or at least managed by having a conversation at the beginning of the relationship about what the mentee wants to achieve and how they envisage the mentor helping them. If the mentor does not have the necessary experience or expertise, or time realistically to offer support, they should try to redirect the mentee to someone who may be able to help. Time constraints brought about by commitments at different times of the academic or calendar year can lead to fluctuations in mentors’—and mentees’—availability. Communicating known periods of limited or no availability from both sides helps mitigate or alleviate situations in which one side of the partnership does not feel like the other is responding in a timely manner. A quick email can go a long way to keeping things afloat!

As mentees rise through the ranks of training, it can be typical for them to look for one mentor who will satisfy all their academic needs, but it is not usually that straightforward! There may be the occasional superhero-mentor who provides mentees with exactly the advice they are seeking at the precise time they are seeking it. If this is the case for you, congratulations! These encyclopedic mentors are likely few and far between, however, given the vast array of academic needs that mentees have. No two mentors or mentees are the same, and therefore neither are any mentor-mentee relationships. Mentees should therefore seek multiple mentors for their different needs, whether academic, technical, or another area. Having a smorgasbord of mentors will enable mentees to seek advice on a specific topic at a certain time from someone who will be able to help them with it at that time. Making and maintaining these relationships with others in their field also increases mentees’ professional network, which can provide greater visibility of their work and open doors to receive invitations to review manuscripts for specific journals and present at professional meetings and workshops. For some people who are in the early stages of their career, simply the thought of contacting an established person in their field to ask for something is so intimidating that it can cause them to break out in a cold sweat. However, most people are often flattered to be asked and willing to share their experience or expertise if they are able, since they have been in the shoes of the junior person at one time or another. Therefore, a well-crafted email clearly stating your position, experience, and what you are seeking advice on could lead to a new prosperous connection, as well as other potential beneficial opportunities down the road. As Geordies from the Newcastle area in the north-east of England close to where I grew up would say, “Shy bairns get nowt,” or, for those who need a translation, “Shy kids get nothing!”

There are numerous professional development opportunities available for both mentors and mentees that provide information and useful resources to help maximize efforts for successful mentoring. A great example is the National Research Mentoring Network, an NIH initiative aimed at enhancing the diversity of the NIH-funded research workforce (https://nrmnet.net). I regularly attend the monthly sessions, which are run by the Office for Faculty Development at the University of Massachusetts Boston. They have offered great insight into various issues faced by both mentors and mentees, and effective strategies to overcome potential barriers to improve the success of mentor-mentee relationships. Because the University of Massachusetts Boston has such a diverse student body—with a population of 33 percent underrepresented minorities and 56 percent first-generation students—resources such as this are fantastic for increasing the effectiveness of mentor-mentee partnerships.

Drawing on my personal experiences and insights gleaned from various professional development sessions, workshops, and mentoring articles, I’ve compiled the following nuggets of wisdom to be an effective mentor and mentee.

Five Ways to be an Effective Mentor

  • Start with a conversation. Talk with your mentees to find out what their goals are and do so at the beginning of your relationship. Gaining a clear picture of what your mentees aspire to achieve and why will allow you to shape your advice and support to best meet their needs or suggest someone else who may be better able to do so.
  • Meet your mentees where they are (figuratively speaking). Have an awareness of where your mentees are as far as academic level and experience to date, so you can provide more tailored advice to support them to achieve their goals in ways that will be achievable for them. In other words, be the wheel that steers the car as each particular mentee provides the work of the engine!
  • Use your experience to provide advice for your mentees on an individual basis. No two mentees are the same; each will bring their own set of interests, expectations, motivations, and personal characteristics. Mentors should be open to responding in ways that provide mentees with the tools they can use to flourish.
  • Create a “safe space” for your mentees. Promote a culture of openness and dialogue by providing a “safe space” for your mentees in which they can feel comfortable discussing challenges—academic or personal—that they are facing and that may be affecting their academic performance. Although mentors are not expected to help with mentees’ personal issues, you may be able to point them in the direction of appropriate support services on campus or elsewhere that may benefit them and improve their academic performance. The power dynamic that can exist between a person in a position of more authority and a trainee can be felt quite profoundly by mentees, which can be a barrier to open dialogue. The onus is on you to diffuse any potential power inequalities by conversing with your experience rather than your power. As the person in a position of more authority, you may feel comfortable and not appreciate this power inequality, but given this greater “power,” you have the opportunity to minimize this inequality to bridge any potential barriers between yourself and your mentees.
  • Tell your mentees what they need to hear rather than what they want to hear. It is in your position as a mentor to give your mentees realistic advice about their progress, which at times they may not want to hear. However, this feedback will help them on their academic journey by turning challenges into opportunities from which they can grow and develop their various academic skills, such as time management, scientific writing ability, communication, motivation, and attention to detail.

Five Ways to be an Effective Mentee

  • Communication is key. Set up preferred communication methods with your mentors early in your relationship to maximize effective communication from the beginning. Your mentors will likely have a preference on how best to communicate with them, based on their time commitments and availability, so ask them what their preference is and use this type of communication if they do not mention it themselves. When mentors receive communications in a way that is agreeable to them, they are more likely to respond in a positive way!
  • Be the engine of the relationship. Approach your mentors when you need to, bearing in mind the type of communication that you have set up between the two of you. Mentors are often busy with tasks that require more of their attention at certain times, but if you want something from your mentor, the emphasis is on you to ask. This does not necessarily mean to pester your mentors with questions for which you should be expected to search for the answers elsewhere, but more that it is up to you to speak up if you need something that only a specific mentor can provide.
  • Be open to constructive feedback. One of the most important aspects of a junior person’s training is learning how to improve, which often means learning from their mistakes. When feedback is provided with the intention of being helpful to you, receive the feedback graciously and openly so you can use it to improve on the specific task at hand. Remember that no-one is perfect, and everyone has traversed through similar formative experiences in their training, including your mentors. Effective mentors want you to succeed and will use their academic and personal experiences to guide you toward that success through this constructive process.
  • Become comfortable having conversations with your mentors. Your mentors are likely to be in positions of more authority than you, which can be intimidating to mentees, but your relationship will be most effective if you communicate your needs clearly. Effective mentors should support you in an open and constructive way and allow you to express your needs, rather than unfairly exerting their power over you.
  • Seek multiple mentors for different, specific needs. Most often, mentors can provide advice in one, sometimes two, areas, whereas you will likely have several areas in which you would like to receive support. Although occasionally a mentor may be able to provide advice on all the topics you need, typically having numerous mentors will provide you with a greater level of support. Your needs will also likely change as you progress through your training and up the professional ranks, so it is particularly important to have many people to whom you can turn to answer those burning questions that will arise at various stages of your career. Having this larger support system will better enable you to overcome potential obstacles and ultimately be more successful.

Mentoring may seem to be about the expertise that can be passed down from an experienced mentor to a mentee who is looking to grow and succeed, but successful mentoring is contingent on the two individuals being able to meet in the middle to create a “win-win” situation. Meeting people where they are, both as mentees and mentors, benefits those involved, as well as science as a whole. Although I have found several approaches that have worked for me as a mentor in my early career stage, I know it is important to continue to learn, grow, and adapt to new situations. Lifelong learners make the best mentors, because their best is constantly getting better.

Rachel Drew Biography

Rachel Drew is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Exercise and Health Sciences at the University of Massachusetts Boston. The focus of her research program is the nervous system control of the cardiovascular system during exercise. Specifically, her neurovascular exercise physiology research involves examination of the effects of healthy aging, race, and exercise training on blood pressure control and blood flow to the kidneys during exercise. Rachel earned her BSc in Sport and Exercise Science and PhD in Exercise Physiology under the supervision of Dr. Mike White, PhD at the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom. She then completed her postdoctoral training under the mentorship of Dr. Larry Sinoway, MD, followed by three years as a Research Associate, at Penn State Hershey in Pennsylvania, USA. Rachel is a member of the American Physiological Society and received a Postdoctoral and Early Career Research Recognition Award from the Neural Control and Autonomic Regulation section of the American Physiological Society in 2014. She is also a member of the Physiological Society in the United Kingdom, the American College of Sports Medicine, and the American Heart Association.

The Flight Safety Briefing for Your Career

Merry L. Lindsey,  University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi; and G.V. (Sonny) Montgomery Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi

One benefit of a physiology research career is that you travel: to conferences to learn new science, to universities to present seminars, and to other laboratories to learn new approaches. As a result, it is fair to say that I hear the flight safety briefing on an airplane more than the average person. It was during one of the briefings that I started to think how similar what the flight attendants were telling me was with what I tell my trainees. It occurred to me that the flight safety briefing could be used to help prepare for a successful research career. Below are the seven main instructions, with discussion on how they can apply to your career:

  • Know the rules
  • Choose the right institution and program
  • Know what you want
  • Your mentor shows you the way
  • Use all resources available
  • Know when you need to help yourself first
  • Prepare to be successful

Read the Safety Card: Know the Rules

Knowing the rules will help you to design a plan to accomplish your goals. For example, knowing the promotion and tenure guidelines will benefit you in developing a time line for advancement. Communication is important, not only in disseminating your science but also in discussing with your mentors what you want to accomplish and in discussing with your lab what you want them to accomplish. Your mentors can also help by telling you the unwritten rules or tips that they have acquired along the way. Not having to re-invent the wheel should save you a lot of time and effort. Networking is important for building a support group that can advance your career, and knowing the ethics involved will help you maintain the reputation you want. Another rule to follow is to keep a great lab notebook as a way to stay safe against any questions that may arise regarding your research. The best defense is a good offense, and being prepared by doing everything right from the start will strengthen your reputation. Knowing and following the rules for your university and granting agency will keep you safe from issues that could derail your career.

Seat Belts: Choose the Right Institution and Program

Being a good fit helps you to be secure. To choose the right fit, you need to know what you need, since every place and mentor has strengths and weaknesses. For example, a large medical school where you are expected to have two large grants and support all of your salary may not be a good fit for a one-grant principal investigator. You do not need to be a perfect fit, but your views and standards, as well as your abilities, should align sufficiently enough that you can be productive and progress in both your research and your career. In some cases where the fit is not right, you will find roadblocks put up that slow down your progress.

Emergency Exits: Know What You Want

Defining what success means to you will show you where to focus your attention. This is an individual endeavor, and the sooner you take the time to define success for yourself, the sooner you will see progress toward your goals. The trick here is to be honest with yourself and not make decisions based on what you think others think you should do. Another safety reminder is to keep in mind that the closest exit may be behind you. Always have back-up plans B and C in case things do not work out as originally planned (and this is often the case). Explore all of the options available to you, since the most obvious ones may not be the best for you. Frequent discussions with your mentor, including brutally honest conversations, are needed early and often. If your mentor is not bringing up the topic, take initiative to start the conversation. You should also take advantage of resources that allow you to gauge strengths and weaknesses. For example, the National Postdoctoral Association has developed a list of six core competencies, and you can use this list to assess your competitiveness for a research faculty position or gauge where you need to spend more effort (https://www.nationalpostdoc.org/?CoreCompetencies). The core competencies include being an expert in concepts specific to your field; having research skills, communication skills, professionalism, leadership and management skills; and taking formal training in the responsible conduct of research. Take time during your training years to acquire these skills.

Floor Path Lighting: Your Mentor Shows You the Way

You mentor models the way, helps you develop your guide, tailors advice to your stage, stretches you, and serves as a life-long advocate. An effective mentor shows you how to accomplish the difficult, or what you think is impossible, on the way to helping you accomplish your goals. You can use physics formulas to develop and maintain a career plan (Lindsey ML, de Castro Bras LE. The physics of an academic career. Adv Physiol Educ 41: 493–497, 2017. doi:10.1152/advan.00105.2017). For example, distance is velocity × time, and any of those three variables can be adjusted as needed. A good mentor will be a good listener, will challenge you, and will develop a two-way street with you. I have a number of graduate students and pre-faculty fellows who trained with me that I now consider colleagues and ask them for advice; it is great to see them develop in their own careers. A major phenotype of a good mentor is that he or she helps you to expand your comfort zone by continually stepping outside of it. Trainees, junior faculty, and experienced investigators should avoid complacency, since this is the easiest way to become out of date.

Life Vest: Use All Resources Available

Knowing how to find what you need to know, before you need to know it, is a trick that successful physiologists have learned. Voracious reading is common in the profiles of successful scientists, and reading includes journal articles but also the vast amount of advice and information provided on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and other social media sites. No matter your stage, your lab is your life vest; rely on them. Communication is important for this component, and using all resources available to you, including peer mentoring, will help you be productive. Having a peer mentor to spring board ideas across is an understated but highly effective resource. When I was starting out, two other assistant professors met with me weekly, and the three of us would discuss ongoing research as well as manuscripts and grants that we were writing. We all collaborated with each other, and by combining our research became stronger. I still rely on peer mentors today.

Oxygen Mask: Know When You Need to Help Yourself First

If the oxygen mask comes down, you need to put your mask on first before assisting others. There will be times when writing that manuscript and submitting that grant takes precedence over other activities. Focusing and saying yes only to what matters most will help you to triage activities that are not primary to your success. I must admit, I am not the best to give advice on this rule, since I find myself reviewing manuscripts and grants on many weekends when I should be recharging or working on my own submissions. A good rule of thumb is that you should give back to the scientific community the same that you request from it. That means for every manuscript or grant you submit, you should review six manuscripts or grants (assuming three reviewers for a submission and one revision).

Seats Back and Tray Tables Up: Prepare to be Successful

As you have progressed, you have hopefully received the best training possible, including primary research skills (ethics, experimental design, data analysis, presentation, and manuscript writing) and secondary skills necessary for success (lab and budget management). Use your mentors, particularly your peer mentors, to get advice along the way. This will prepare you for a successful career. In conclusion, following the flight safety briefing will help you to plan and develop a successful career.


Dr. Lindsey acknowledges funding from the National Institutes of Health under Award Numbers GM-104357, GM-114833, GM-115428, HL-051971, HL-075360, and HL-129823; and from the Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development Service of the Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development under Award Number 5I01BX000505.

The content is solely the responsibility of the author and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health or the Veterans Administration.

Merry L. Lindsey Biography

Merry L. Lindsey is professor in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Director of the Mississippi Center for Heart Research (MCHR). MCHR is dedicated to performing cardiovascular research that involves developing multidimensional approaches to examine the mechanisms whereby the left ventricle responds to injury; applying the knowledge gained to develop therapeutic strategies to prevent, slow, or reverse the progression to heart failure; disseminating their results to the general, scientific, and medical communities; and educating the next generation of scientists. Her research is focused on extracellular matrix responses to cardiac injury and aging.

Lindsey’s research has led to more than 180 publications, and she has received grant support from the American Heart Association (AHA), the Voelcker Foundation, Novartis, the Veterans Administration, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Lindsey serves on the editorial boards for the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, Comprehensive Physiology, Circulation Research, and Basic Research in Cardiology and is actively involved in the APS, AHA, and the American Society of Matrix Biology. She has reviewed grants for the AHA, NIH, and numerous international funding agencies, and has presented her research at over 100 national and international venues. Her trainees routinely publish high-impact articles, win research awards for excellence, and successfully transition to independent faculty positions.

Trust and Open Communication: Successful mentoring strategies that transcend differences in language, culture or style

Caroline B. Appleyard, PhD, Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Puerto Rico

What is a mentor?

According to Webster’s dictionary being a mentor is defined as ‘a wise and trusted counselor or teacher’ (1), more recently ‘a trusted counselor or guide’ (2), or on google ‘an experienced and trusted adviser’. The common theme here appears to be trust which holds up to my own perception and experience that as a mentor you are privileged by the fact that someone has chosen to place their trust in you and believes that you have their best interests at heart in your efforts to guide them. When I was asked to write an article based on my experiences and insights on mentorship for underrepresented minorities I really had to think about what mentoring means to me and try to articulate how I mentor. For the last 20 years I have been on faculty at a Hispanic-serving institution located in the south of Puerto Rico and have been fortunate to mentor over 100 underrepresented minority students (undergraduate, master’s, and doctoral) either within my laboratory or through our graduate training program. Each of these experiences has been unique, and often both rewarding and challenging.

My introduction to mentoring

My own awareness of having a ‘mentor’ versus a Laboratory Principal Investigator during my scientific training didn’t really become apparent until I started my postdoctoral training in the early 1990s and heard of mentoring programs under various professional societies. Although the word’s origins date back to the mid-18th century the popularity of the concept of mentoring appears to have blossomed during the last 20 years perhaps in part by an increased understanding of the importance of role models to achieving equity in science for both, women and underrepresented populations (3). Although I am not considered an underrepresented minority (by ethnicity) it is notable that throughout my undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate education in Britain, Canada and the United States there was one common denominator – a lack of female role models. I have never been taught by a woman. Further, it was very obvious that the vast majority of the professors, and later colleagues, were both male and white. Although slowly changing, it is unfortunate that the numbers of underrepresented groups in academia and the sciences still remain low (4).

During my post-doctoral studies in Canada and South Dakota I first became aware of the hardships faced by Native Americans in science.  One of my prior mentees that I remember the best was a young girl pursuing summer research in the lab at the University of South Dakota.  She told me that it was completely expected for her to get pregnant and leave high school like the rest of her family, and that the summer program opened her eyes to a whole range of other possibilities. It was at that time that I became aware of the potential impact of STEM outreach. Dr. Barb Goodman (long time American Physiological Society (APS) member and Physiology Understanding (PhUn) week advocate) was already very involved in going into the local schools in Vermillion, South Dakota, to expose the kids to science. She told us about her experiences and this was illuminating for me since I had received very little information during my schooling as to what a career in science might entail, aside from the pharmaceutical industry. I began to appreciate that for many students, the path towards a successful career in science should depend on things other than luck, such as guidance towards opportunities and how to make the most of these. This has become readily apparent as we appreciate the difference that successful targeted research mentoring can make in an effort to overcome inequities in retention of minorities in the sciences (5). When I was asked to become the Graduate Student Association Advisor I became aware that the students within our graduate program were asking for additional training and had an interest in improving their competitiveness for life after graduate school. I also noticed that there were issues which were hindering the students’ progress so that many times they were underperforming not due to lack of ability, but rather a lack of mentoring.

Mentoring Styles – How does mine fit?

As I started my own lab I ‘mentored’ my own students how I would have liked to be mentored, trying to set guidelines, expectations, milestones and deadlines.  I learnt that what worked for some (strict deadlines and constant follow up) would not work for others. We are all individuals and respond to stress and obligations in different ways. It has always been very important to me to stress to my trainees that what they want to achieve in life is a very personal decision and I see success in all forms. I have had to adapt my own way of ‘balancing’ things as someone who completed graduate school and had a family later in life, to help provide advice to students in my laboratory who have been through all stages of family life while completing their studies (single, engaged, married, pregnant, children, divorce). I have tried to provide an open space encouraging my mentees to identify their own passions and what interests them. It is important for them to realize that there is ‘no right way’ and that our depth and amalgamation of background experiences help to shape our research and our contributions to our scientific endeavors.  However, I strongly believe that it is also extremely important that when one enters a mentoring situation there is a realization that a commitment is being made on both sides which must be upheld for the outcomes to be successful. Each side of the equation is trusting the other to follow through on their promises. Although this does not always need to be formalized with written documents, in my own experience, written expectations and timelines have always proven very useful for helping to ensure that mentoring relationships stay on track.

The single biggest failing I see which causes a multitude of problems in different laboratories and mentoring relationships is simply poor communication.  This inevitably leads to not clearly outlining and understanding expectations from both the mentor and trainee. The risk for this can be even higher when mentoring an underrepresented minority where there can be great differences in language, culture and accepted social norms on top of differences in communication style and personality, and even implicit bias.

Working in a predominantly Spanish speaking U.S. territory I very quickly realized that all sorts of miscommunications can occur when rapidly giving instructions with an apparently ‘strong’ Scottish accent. In person, a nodded head often did NOT equal understanding. It is important to realize your mentees might be hesitant to ask you to explain what you mean, or to slow down.  A helpful solution is to ask the trainee to reiterate what you agreed upon, and this can also be followed up by emailing a summary of the decided plans after the meeting with follow up deadlines (also a good way of tracking for both mentees and mentors). Likewise, my ‘to the point’ requests have sometimes been misconstrued as being ‘brusque’ in a culture where there are commonly many more niceties first. This can be especially true when communicating by email where you lose the ability to interpret facial expressions.  Ask trusted colleagues and staff, or more senior students, for feedback. It was a revelation to learn that when trainees sometimes didn’t do something as quickly as I was expecting this was in large part due to my tendency to preface requests with ‘when you have time’ when really, I wanted it as soon as possible (and apparently when I say ‘as soon as possible’ it means I wanted it yesterday!).

How I implemented vision across the graduate program from my own lab

There are many levels of mentoring ranging from those relationships that take place both formally and informally within the single research lab (undergraduates, graduates, postdocs), through to mentoring those students at a programmatic level, and then to junior faculty who are colleagues. In general, I have found very useful a ‘team mentoring’ approach and setting realistic milestones within a supportive but accountable environment. This has been one of the cornerstones for the success of students in our NIH-NIGMS funded Ponce Health Sciences University (PHSU) RISE Graduate Training Program (6) which has helped increase the competitiveness and retention of underrepresented Hispanic students participating in biomedical research in our interdisciplinary PhD Program. Novel initiatives we put in place to help our students succeed better include team mentoring programs and ‘pairing’ of trainees with peer mentors chosen to help provide advice and direction matched according to the student’s family and personal circumstances. We have a unique situation in Puerto Rico in terms of language and also culturally with many first-generation graduate students. Taking into consideration the individual as a whole, not just their research or career goals aims to provide a more solid support system.  We have also implemented various workshops targeted specifically towards handling stressful situations and focusing on building our trainees self-esteem and confidence by working on their oral and written communication skills, goal setting and time management.

Mentoring models

There are many different formalized mentoring models which are outside the scope of this column however those which I have encountered and found to be useful include:

Peer Mentoring – in this scenario a mentee is paired with another trainee or professional who is in a similar situation or stage of their career in order to share experiences.  This can be very valuable both within a research laboratory where the common situation is most likely the research topic and PI but can also take place between labs. In many ways this is the type of mentoring I have most utilized for my own personal needs, alternately using colleagues as a sounding board for gathering insights and information to deal with every-day situations (akin to a ‘buddy’ support system) to asking for advice and guidance from those just a little ahead of me. This latter situation we have found extremely beneficial for our PHSU RISE Graduate Training Program where we pair trainees with a ‘successful’ student a couple of years ahead of them, the idea being that they can share their insights and give tips and pointers as to how best navigate the graduate school process.

Team Mentoring matches a trainee with multiple mentors. These can be selected by the mentee or by the institution. The team has a common goal directed towards helping the trainee succeed. In my own institution, under our PHSU RISE Graduate Training Program, we have used this approach very successfully to provide a variety of input and guidance to the mentee. The ‘team’ comprises the mentee, their research mentor, a faculty advisor from the program’s internal advisory committee and their peer mentor.

Network Mentoring recognizes that it is hard for one mentor to provide all the support that a trainee needs, especially as the requirements change over time. A network of mentors each provides their own unique expertise and experience on different aspects of the mentee’s career and research.

E-Mentoring allows trainees to access a mentor online without any geographical limitations. This can be particularly useful for those who are training in a smaller institution where they might not have such a broad range of expertise readily available on campus.  I have mentored students as an APS member through MentorNet and am now part of the National Research Mentoring Network (NRMN) which we actively encourage all our students and faculty to join. My experience with this type of mentoring has generally been positive but I think depends largely on what the trainee’s expectations are and what kind of resources/help they are looking for. An extension of this kind of mentoring model are the more formalized hybrid versions whereby there is an in-person ‘kick-off’ followed by a year-long follow up with several formal meetings.  Examples of these which our own underrepresented doctoral students have participated in include the Yale Ciencia Academy (7) and the Academy for Future Science Faculty (8). Both aim to provide graduate students with opportunities for mentoring, peer support and networking to help develop important skills for their career. The latter, a randomized controlled trial developed, and is testing, a coaching-based model to complement more traditional mentoring scenarios.

Nuances to mentoring underrepresented groups

Although I strongly believe in treating everyone fairly, this does not equate to treating everyone the same, particularly when it comes to mentoring underrepresented groups. It is crucial to remember the old saying ‘one size does not fit all’. Language, culture and personality differences all play a role. Having lived in several countries with different languages, accents and cultures I have often been the outsider in the room and can perhaps understand to some extent the feeling of ‘being the only one’ that underrepresented minorities can experience in science. For many students at our institution their primary language is not English and also for many they are the first in their family to attend graduate school. In addition to facing the regular academic challenges they are often balancing conflicting family demands and expectations. In my opinion it is important to help the trainee identify their weaknesses and strengths in order to set realistic expectations and timelines.  In our program one of the more useful tools are having all students assemble and constantly update a professional portfolio (9). This highlights their professional and community service activities and provides documentation of their achievement of goals. Not only does this provide a great way for the students to visually organize all their materials and provide them with evidence of their accomplishments but also helps the mentor to be aware of which areas need strengthening and what skills the trainee has that even they might not be aware of.

Related to the point above it is important to take time to celebrate successes. I think Mentors need to promote their mentees so they can believe in themselves and help to overcome the well-recognized ‘imposter syndrome’.  The feeling that one does not belong, cannot succeed or continually doubts one’s capability is common at all levels of higher education (and even as we advance further in our careers) but has been identified as a particularly relevant issue affecting participation in STEM by underrepresented minorities (10,11).

Recognizing that a common weakness in our students is their English communication skills it is important to appreciate that more time is needed for review and refinement of written assignments. As a mentor, I try to focus on the point that the trainee is trying to get across and provide as many opportunities as possible for the trainee to develop their communication skills. This has been combined with encouraging our students to become involved in outreach activities within our local elementary and high schools, such as the APS PhUn week, where they become more proficient at speaking in public. This also helps them to explain better to their families what graduate school involves and communicate their science to their family and friends.

It is vital to be open to new ideas and honest feedback. Over the years my own mentoring style and activities under our graduate training program have evolved through input from colleagues, but more importantly my mentees. It is important to get to know your mentees outside the lab so you can build trust and encourage further open communication. They are the ones who often come up with requests, ideas and suggestions for addressing their needs.  A phenomenal example of this are our annual RISE program Philosophy of Science Retreats. These offsite two-day activities enhance team building and increase interactions between faculty and trainees in a less formal atmosphere, enabling the students to recognize how the program staff can be of help to them, and how their interactions with other people in the program are a valuable source of research, academic, and personal support. This activity was implemented in response to specific requests by trainees. Themes are varied, ranging from ethics and scientific philosophy to science policy and more general aspects of scientific life. Most recently we focused on ‘Science and Wellness’ encouraging trainees to self-reflect about their current practices for self-care and stress management with an aim to provide trainees with healthier life tools to help them succeed in their academic, personal and professional life.

Final closing thoughts

To be a successful mentor takes time (a lot!) and patience. There has to be follow through on both parts, and for many successful academics who are juggling already busy schedules with grant writing, research and teaching, the time required can be hard to prioritize. However, passing along our knowledge and helping the next generation of scientists to succeed can be immensely rewarding and are vital if we are to address the ongoing disparities in science. Some relationships may end as soon as the formal agreement or training is complete but others continue for years. In addition to the many requests for recommendation letters (where warranted), or advice, I continue to send announcements for opportunities that I feel a former mentee could benefit from and try to track their progress. The sense of pride felt when a former mentee wins an award, gains a faculty promotion or even finds their own path in an unexpected direction is enormously rewarding. Lastly, one cannot underestimate the fact that from each mentee we also learn something. They can push our research and thoughts in new directions and sometimes force us outside our comfort zone.

Author Bio

Caroline B. Appleyard is Program Director for the RISE Graduate Training program at Ponce Health Sciences University. She is a Professor in the Department of Basic Sciences – Physiology Division with an active research program directed towards elucidating the neuro-immune mechanisms and consequences of inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract with a view to developing complementary therapies.  She has personally mentored over 100 underrepresented students at all levels in her laboratory. The RISE program is supported by NIH-NIGMS (GM082406) and provides professional development and career skills training for graduate students pursuing a PhD in Biomedical Sciences in order to strengthen their future competitiveness. Caroline has served on the APS Women in Physiology Committee and the Career Opportunities in Physiology Committee. In 2017 she was the inaugural recipient of the APS A. Clifford Barger Underrepresented Minority Mentorship Award.



1. Webster’s encyclopedic unabridged dictionary of the English language. New rev Ed 1994 Published by Random House
2. Marriam-Webster Online dictionary https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mentor
Accessed April 3rd, 2018
3. http://www.sciencemag.org/features/2012/02/reaching-gender-equity-science-importance-role-models-and-mentors
4. National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. 2017. Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 2017. Special Report NSF 17-310. Arlington, VA. Available at www.nsf.gov/statistics/wmpd/.
5. Haeger H, Frsquez C. Mentoring for inclusion: the impact of mentoring on undergraduate researchers in the sciences. CBE-Life Sciences Education 15:ar36, 1–9, Fall 2016
6. Ponce Health Sciences University RISE graduate training program (NIH-NIGMS R25GM082406)
7. Yale Ciencia Academy for Career Development https://www.cienciapr.org/en/yale-ciencia-academy-career-development
8. Thakore BK, Naffziger-Hirsch ME, Richardson JL, Williams SN, McGee R. The Academy for Future Science Faculty: randomized controlled trial of theory-driven coaching to shape development and diversity of early-career scientists. BMC Medical Education 2014 14:160 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-14-160
9. Baez A, Pacheco W, Appleyard CB (2012) The Graduate Student Portfolio: Organize and Energize Your Career Development.  The Physiologist, Vol. 55, No. 5, 177-178 PMID:23155926
10. Barragan, 2009,“Overcoming Barriers to Higher Education: The Experience of Latina/os Graduate Students at the University of Washington,” The McNair Scholars Journal of the University of Washington, Vol. VIII: 53-64
11. Parkman A (2016) The Imposter Phenomenon in Higher Education: Incidence and Impact Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice Vol. 16(1) 2016, 51-60
You Beyond the PhD: Do You Have the Right Tools in Your Toolbox?

Maria L. Urso
BTG International

This contribution to the Mentoring Forum covers topics that I presented during a “Mentoring for Diverse Careers” symposium at Experimental Biology in 2015. The goal of my talk was to highlight pivotal actions that were made as my nontraditional career unfolded. I opened my talk with the statement, “this is not a story of adversity, but rather a story of opportunity and finding a ‘good fit.'” I opted to be particularly candid in my talk, since, although I always touted that every stage of my career was the best phase of my career, each was not without internal and external conflicts. I felt that the best way to inspire and educate others on these difficult career decisions was to be transparent, since then one would be empowered with the appropriate tools to take on the adversity associated with the path less traveled.

In a nutshell, I had an extremely successful PhD with a fantastic team of mentors, most notably my advisor and friend, Dr. Priscilla Clarkson. One thing that I will never forget about my mentor was that she took a chance on me. I showed up in her lab lacking a lot of the basic skills that one would hope their graduate students would have, which prevented any immediate contribution to the productivity of the laboratory. Dr. Clarkson noticed one thing about me, and that was all it took. Rather than deny me entry into her lab because I had not yet published as a master’s student or because I was not well-versed in the muscle-damage literature, she asked me what I wanted to do and how I thought I would go about doing it. Although I did not have a past pedigree, I had a vision that was tethered to a realistic plan and enough passion to guarantee that complacency would never be an issue during my tenure. Accordingly, I left Dr. Clarkson’s laboratory with a toolbox full of skills that would guarantee a prosperous career if I continued to develop and refine them as I matured. In addition to my full toolbox, I had several publications in notable journals, successful grant applications, molecular biology laboratory skills (that were self-taught following an initiative by Dr. Clarkson to bring our laboratory up to speed), and a direct commission from the U.S. Army.

As any mentor or mentee could imagine, the final aspect of my departure from my PhD created a few waves and hushed discussions among my colleagues and mentors (not to mention my mother, but that’s a different column). However, this was not a rash decision by any means. I had spent my entire research career up until that point doing research in humans related to skeletal muscle breakdown, whether it was a consequence of exercise-induced muscle damage, injury, immobilization, or aging. As I interviewed for postdoctoral positions in notable laboratories across the country, I just could not see myself transitioning away from the line of research that I had established. Additionally, although I had academic mentors providing advice, I was fortunate to have a mentor since the day I was born in my father. He was a physician and spent many years providing medical support in the U.S. Army Reserves. Since I was young, a career in medicine was always something I wanted to pursue. So, I joined the military to follow some life dreams and personal motivations, and to continue to do skeletal muscle research in humans, particularly military-relevant research. I entered the military as a commissioned officer with a military operational specialty (MOS) of 71B, or Research Biochemist. In this role, I would not only serve my country as a scientist, but my research would provide answers to military-relevant problems such as blast injury, rhabdomyolysis, inflammation, and spinal cord injury.

After 7 successful years as a military-scientist at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), I decided to use the skills that I had developed to transition to a clinical research and medical science team in industry. Remarkably, despite the notion that you can only be hired in industry if you have industry experience, the transitions were not only seamless, but I was able to make significant contributions within a relatively short time of being hired. I can only attribute this steady trajectory to the tools that were placed in my toolbox throughout my career: tools that were collected from my mentors, peers, adversaries, and experiences.

Although my nontraditional career decisions tended to be cautioned against rather than lauded, I have continued to grow as a scientist, and each day I am more fulfilled by the opportunities that have presented themselves. I am convinced that the only way to produce fantastic work is to have the right tools for the battle and to love what you do. I want to use this column as an opportunity to highlight the essential tools for the battle that I emphasized in my talk.

Essential Tool #1: Knowing What Drives You
The best mentor in the world cannot give you this tool; this one must be acquired on your own. In an effort to achieve favor while working on our doctorates, the vision of the laboratory becomes your own. As important as it is to contribute to the overall success and productivity of your laboratory, it is absolutely critical that you do not lose sight of who you were before you began this adventure. Many of you are also athletes, musicians, bakers, artists, etc. As best as you can with the responsibilities that you must juggle, do not let your side passions go. To remain creative and productive, you will need something that is yours. The benefit of maintaining something that you are passionate about outside of the laboratory is that it will always give you a chance to do an inventory and examine your current engagements from an outside perspective. When you look from the outside in, ask yourself: Are you still excited? Are you making decisions because they feel good and motivate you, or because you feel pressured to? Have you been pressured to do something that might seem unethical when you look at it from the outside? Are you truly managing your time properly, or are you getting lost in busy-work? Asking yourself these questions is important for not forgetting who you are and sticking to your convictions when making difficult decisions.

Essential Tool #2: Having a Blueprint
A blueprint is essential to your career because it will consistently remind you of your vision, particularly when your plate is so full you cannot look beyond the next 4 months of tasks. Write down where you want to be in 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years. Revise your plan as necessary. Do your homework. Learn about other career opportunities outside your laboratory and read career descriptions of the job that you want. Modify what you are doing to obtain the skills and experience required. If others try to persuade you to think differently, you will have a solid plan in place that may help you to navigate difficult discussions.

As a start to some nontraditional career opportunities, here are some links:

Put your plan on paper, do your research, and follow through, despite persuasion.

Essential Tool #3: Honing Your Fundamental Skills
Make sure you practice your writing daily. Clear writing is a skill that should be easy, but oftentimes we are determined to make our writing sound as impressive as our research. This tool is critical in grant applications and manuscript preparation. Your goal should not be to impress the reviewer with your vernacular. Your goal is to clearly explain what you plan to do (grants) or did do (manuscripts) concisely. In scientific writing, you will be amazed at the elegance that comes with simplicity. You should also be able to write or speak persuasively. Although we are scientists and not salespeople, we are always selling something. It may be an idea, a research finding, a proposal, or a hypothesis. Become the best scientific salesperson you can be. When making a transition away from the benchtop, the ability to express yourself and your work clearly is of utmost importance. You will no longer be speaking to like-minded scientists but to clinicians, businesspeople, policy-makers, sales teams, patients, etc.

Essential Tool #4: Your Elevator Speech
Many of you are working on niche projects in a laboratory. You have spent months immersed in the literature and running experiments. It is important to remember that you are now an “expert” in this domain and that others may only have a cursory knowledge of your research area. You will lose their interest if you begin to go into the intricate details of your work. It is always a good idea to prepare a two- to three-sentence overview of what you do. This is not an easy task. You need to make two to three impactful sentences that explain the following: the tissue/organism you work with, the research question you are answering, how you are going about answering it, and why it matters. These sentences should be understood by everyone from your mentor (for accuracy) to the officer at passport control who asks what you do as a scientist. This elevator speech is going to be your first impression as you navigate nontraditional career opportunities, and it needs to be perfect.

Essential Tool #5: Managing Projects and People
We are all going to manage projects and people differently. The key point here is that you devise a formula that is reliable. Having a reliable formula to produce quality work ensures that, when you are part of a team that is in an up-tempo production mode, you will deliver. This is how you become an asset to any team and sought after by employers. Whether your project is big or small, your formula should apply (albeit with a few tweaks). Oftentimes, when you are in a leadership positon and managing people, you will not have the luxury of first devising a plan to manage a task.

As an example, when I was writing the literature review for my dissertation, I accomplished very little the first 2 weeks. The enormity of the task was so daunting, I avoided it. One day I realized that if I wrote two pages per day, I would have a literature review completed in advance of my deadline at the end of the semester. The rule was that I could not get caught up in small details; I just had to put pen to paper for two pages per day, and I would go back and edit when I was done. Each day I started by writing two pages of text—it was so easy! I found that once I started I did not want to stop after just two pages of writing. I ended up finishing a month in advance of my deadline. My formula is to take a large task with a far-away deadline and break it up into smaller tasks with daily deadlines. I have relied on this formula for everything, from work to house projects.

Essential Tool #6: Accept Challenges and Live Outside Your Comfort Zone
Once you know what you can accomplish when you put your mind to it, start accepting new challenges. I recall thinking my plate was full during my first year of my PhD program. By the second year, I was handling twice as many tasks, and I still had time to do things that I enjoyed. If I accepted the first “full plate,” I never would have taken on new challenges. Allow yourself to fill the plate with more than you planned. You may surprise yourself with what you can accomplish when you take new risks and live outside your comfort zone (n.b., see section below on expecting to fail). Despite the expectations around you, design your own constantly evolving expectations. Say yes and get involved. Ask questions at conferences. When it is your turn to be front and center, give the best front and center that you can give.

Essential Tool #7: Conference Attendance and Interactions
When I attended my first national conference, I did not know a single person there except for my master’s advisor. He had friends and colleagues that he needed to meet with, so I was on my own. I went to symposia, met people at the poster sessions, and exchanged e-mail addresses with people whom I still collaborate with today. When I went to my second national conference, I was with my peers, and we spent the entire conference together. I went home without meeting a single new person. After that, I began to avoid the “conference pod.” Break away from your home team at conferences. Go to the sessions that pertain to your work, but also to those that excite you. Attend the career seminars. Start discussions at the poster sessions. You are much more approachable on your own, and you will not feel pressured to step away from a conversation prematurely. Do not be afraid to step away from the crowd on the small things, it will make stepping away for the bigger things easier.

Essential Tool #8: Get Involved in Professional Organizations
Aside from the “village” that raised me during my years in school, the single greatest contributor to my growth was my involvement in professional organizations. I began by volunteering for small things at regional conferences (e.g., manning registration booths), then national conferences (introducing speakers), then serving on committees. These opportunities allowed me to work on projects with scientists whom I had previously idolized from afar. All of a sudden, I not only had a seat at the table, but we were exchanging ideas on how to bring a new concept to life. These professional relationships will give you a platform for everything from research advice to visibility.

Essential Tool #9: Expect to Fail
Human nature: we all want to earn an A. Nobody takes on a research project or activity with the intention of earning an F. However, it is when we earn those Fs that we learn more. Most of us will attempt the project again in an attempt to turn that F into an A. Others will use that experience as a learning experience for the next project, perhaps refining the experimental design and approach. Take big risks and expect to fail. This will prevent complacency or an inability to start something new in fear of receiving an F. Get the F, learn how to make it an A. In the long run, the failures will shape you more than the successes. Become an expert at uncertainty and build resiliency. One of my favorite quotes is from Arianna Huffington (co-founder of the Huffington Post): “We need to accept that we won’t always make the right decisions, that we’ll screw up royally sometimes—understanding that failure is not the opposite of success, it’s part of success.”

Essential Tool #10: Find a Niche
People will tell you to follow your passion. How many of you have just one passion? Following your one passion may be a dead end. It is better to identify which skills you have that may be valuable to others. Once you do this, hone those skills until you have career capital. Constantly determine whether and how you are distinguishing yourself from the thousands of individuals with the same major or degree.

Essential Tool #11: Have a Hobby That Overlaps With Your Career
Once my mentor taught me how to write, it became one of my favorite things to do. I was also an athlete, so I was continually exposed to trends and fads in the fitness world. As a side project, I started writing columns and blogs for different periodicals incorporating scientific evidence and human performance and nutrition. While doing this, I established connections and relationships from industry to private organizations. As my skillset improved, I was invited to serve as a scientific consultant, speaker, and writer for these different organizations. Suddenly, I was getting paid to do something that I considered a hobby. At the same time, I was refining the skills that I used every day in my professional life.

Final Thoughts
As you traverse your career, you will find many more tools to add to your toolbox that you find are essential. The key focus is to never stop adding tools to your toolbox. Build bridges instead of burning them, never pass up an opportunity to be assessed, and listen to what goes on around you. Take chances constantly, but be prepared to accept that not every decision will be the right one. Only you can choose the career that is right for you, and, with the proper planning, you beyond the PhD will be exactly the right fit.

Maria Urso is a Medical Science Liaison (MSL) for BTG Pharmaceuticals, a specialty pharmaceutical company that offers therapies for patients with COPD, vascular disease, and cancer. She received her PhD from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Prior to BTG, Maria was the Director of Clinical Research at Arteriocyte, and a scientist at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM). While at USARIEM, Maria served on active duty as an Army Major.

Maria is a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, a member of the MSL Society, and previously served on APS’s Women in Physiology Committee. In 2012, she was a recipient of the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE) from President Barack Obama.

On Mentorship, Perseverance, and Generosity

Ormond A. MacDougald
John A Faulkner Collegiate Professor of Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

My approach to mentorship, lab management, and career development reflects not only my ideals but also the influence of many individuals during my training, and lessons learned from my trainees. The most significant figure in this regard was my postdoctoral advisor, M. Daniel Lane. As detailed in an In Memoriam written by Lane lab trainees (Mandrup et al. In memoriam: M. Daniel Lane, 1930-2014. Trends Endocrinol Metab 25: 437-439, 2014.), “Dan was a fantastic mentor who set a great and inspiring example as a scientist and leader, and who took exceptionally good care of his trainees from the minute they arrived until long after they left his lab.” The lab culture he created, along with our devotion to him and his wife Pat “glued several generations of alumni together as a large extended family, a legacy that will last for years.” He was a unique example of how to be a highly successful scientist, while also being universally recognized as a kind and caring man.

Why Do We Mentor?

I think of mentorship as a personal relationship in which I use my experience and knowledge to help others by providing guidance and promoting personal development. It is important to note that mentoring is not strictly an altruistic act—as researchers we create new knowledge and trained personnel, and to optimally train personnel requires more than just providing lab space and a supply budget. The thought and energy put into mentoring students and postdoctoral fellows often pays dividends back to the research enterprise and helps with recruiting new lab members. In addition, skills such as active listening that are honed while becoming a better mentor also transfer to other parts of our professional and personal lives. My experience has been that, when I put the requisite time and energy into mentoring, it ends up being among the most rewarding and enjoyable parts of my day.

How to mentor is a more difficult question to address, and what follows are a few of my thoughts on this subject, some of which I hope will resonate with you. Although I’ve written this essay in the context of running a lab, most of the suggestions are applicable to broader contexts. When I think about the skills and habits associated with mentoring, many of these can be attributed to common sense; however, it’s a little like my experience reading books on financial planning or time management—simply reading about them periodically and having them in mind helps to keep me doing the right thing and from slipping into bad habits such as getting “too busy” to spend time with my trainees.

Although it would be great if we all had the mentoring skill set of Dan Lane, each of us has our own specific limitations in this department. Thus we soldier on with our given personality and emotional quotient. As with many challenges in life, we do our best to play on our strengths while working furiously to shore up our weaknesses. One factor we do have control over is actively thinking about our trainees and considering what we can do to help them develop and achieve their goals. It also helps to view these relationships as lifelong, which adds a layer of commitment and endurance that demands focus and respect. When all is said and done, the interactions we have had with trainees, although more difficult to quantify than many other aspects of our professional lives, may be among the most important accomplishments of our careers.

Be Transparent

In any relationship, it’s important that there be trust, and an important foundation for trust is transparency. Set the stage by discussing very early on what your expectations are of your trainee. Give honest and regular feedback, and not just in areas that need improvement. Don’t be afraid to cheerlead their successes to them, as well as to others! Discuss and debate ethical and responsible conduct of research, and be open about the problems of fraud and irreproducible results within science as a whole, and how these may be relevant within your lab.

The relationship also requires active and open participation from the mentee, which will help both of you determine whether the path the trainee is on is consistent with his or her skills and goals. Sometimes you need to have tough, open conversations, and even if the results of your discussion hurt, the process itself does not need to be hurtful. I was fortunate to have mentors who were forthcoming about their prior professional and personal life experiences, and I emulate that approach. Although I try not to give unsolicited advice, my hope is that my mentees will learn both from situations I have handled well and from mistakes I have made.
I also think it is important as mentors to be transparent about the reality associated with a life in academia—the challenges of research and running a lab, the shortage of time, the vagaries of grant funding, and the demands ongoing elsewhere in your life. How can they learn about lab management if we don’t discuss the budget? We don’t do our trainees any favors by shielding them from some of the less desirable aspects of the job—they need to go in with their eyes open. Having said that, I feel the competitive job market and tight NIH grant budgets have created too much angst and negativity toward careers in biomedical research, and I continue to stress what a privilege it is to be in that small part of society whose job is to create new knowledge and to train the next generation of scientists—and to note the many perks of a life in academia, where you are paid to be surrounded by bright and interesting people, have the opportunity to travel the world, and where you have tremendous flexibility in your work schedule.

Be Realistic

It would be great if all our trainees became biomedical researchers at major institutions and went on to win Nobel Prizes, but that obviously sets the bar more than a little high. Every trainee has a unique skillset and his or her own ambitions, and it’s really important for trainees to get on a path through life that is right for them. Although it’s not always easy, I try to meet them where they are at and where they are headed. This takes careful listening and not simply projecting onto them what my hopes and dreams are for their role in my lab. It becomes easier as I get to know them better, and I try to take an active interest in what is ongoing in their life. As faculty, we are professional decision makers, but, in the case of trainees, it’s important to suspend judgment and give them space to figure out their own path. It’s also unrealistic to think that you can serve as a mentor to all. For some individuals, the “fit” or “chemistry” is such that you simply aren’t the right person to serve as a mentor—and that’s okay.

Keep the Long View in Mind

Although micromanagement is a perfectly viable approach to having a productive lab, I don’t feel that it’s the best training approach. It’s tempting to take the easy road out and tell our trainees what to do, but that is only good in the short term. Empowering our trainees to make and take responsibility for their own decisions will help them become independent in the long run. We all learn by making mistakes, and a period of “chasing butterflies” is often critical for trainees to hone their instincts for what experiments will work and which are unlikely to succeed—for balancing decisions of risk and yield.

In addition to the mentoring advice above, I would also like to share two additional thoughts with you.


When I first started at the University of Michigan as a young assistant professor, my chairman assigned Christin Carter-Su, a former winner of the Bodil Schmidt-Neilson award, to be my official departmental mentor. In my first meeting with Christy, she asked me, “What does it take to become a full professor at the University of Michigan?” After stammering something about the importance of recruiting, hard work, creativity, strategic planning, and other stream-of-consciousness, she replied, “Yes to all those, but what it really takes is perseverance.” She warned me that there would be bumps in the road—rejected papers, grants not funded, lectures gone awry—but that those happened to everyone and shouldn’t be taken personally. Christy also told me that how I handled those bumps would be the difference between success and failure—don’t let them get me down, view them as challenges to be met, and learn from them rather than give up. It was great advice that I share with my trainees and which I am happy to share here.

In addition to those challenges mentioned above, you may encounter someone—could be your boss, a colleague, or perhaps even a trainee—with whom your relationship is intractable, despite your best efforts. Although this could be an excellent opportunity to work on your diplomacy, patience, and people skills, sometimes this is a situation that you just need to persevere through. If serious enough, it may even be necessary to extract yourself from the situation. The reality is that we often learn just as much or even more from negative situations than from positive ones. Thus even difficult relationships can be formative and positive if you carefully note which behaviors you choose to emulate.

Be Generous

One of Dan Lane’s great traits was his generosity. Some of my fondest memories from my time in his lab were the times spent in his home—the celebrations for trainees when they graduated or got jobs, the warm ambiance and atmosphere of his Christmas parties, or the time at his kitchen table going through my fellowship application. I have tried to emulate Dan’s generosity by opening my home to those around me. And, like him, I also try to be generous with my time. Consistency of behavior and ample time spent with mentees are important for developing a relationship and trust. Students and fellows also benefit tremendously if you are generous with your professional and personal network, since this will help them open doors and achieve their goals.
I have benefited tremendously from people in my life who have given freely of their time, energy, and finances. Although I can’t in many cases pay them back directly, I try to pay the debt forward to the next and future generations. If you feel similarly, please mentor those coming up behind you and also give what you can to financially support their education and research opportunities. In these uncertain times at the NIH, philanthropy is becoming more and more integral to our funding of biomedical research and all stages of education.

Many thanks to my former and current trainees, as well as Christy Carter-Su, for their editorial and other comments.

Ormond A. MacDougald, Ph.D. is the John A Faulkner Collegiate Professor of Physiology at the University of Michigan.  After receiving his B.Sc (Agr) from the University of Guelph, he obtained an M.S. and Ph.D. from Michigan State University, and postdoctoral training with Dan Lane at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Biological Chemistry. His long-standing research interests have centered around adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. Ormond is a previous recipient of the Henry Pickering Bowditch Lectureship from the APS. When not in the lab Ormond spends time with his wife and four children, and loves to putter in his wood shop.