May 4th, 2021
Considering Student Evaluations of Your Teaching

After a long and trying academic year, student evaluations of your teaching will soon be in your inbox. A bit of courage is required to take a first glance at student comments about your course. Given the substantial increase in time and effort this academic year has required, critical comments may feel even more harsh.

When you do look over your student evaluations, take a few minutes to copy or write down some of the positive comments. Believe and appreciate these comments. Students value your knowledge, talents, and hard work. Then, put the evaluations away for a few days. Come back to them when you have time and energy for self-reflection.

The act of teaching is extremely personal, and it is difficult not to take critical comments as a personal attack. To compound these feelings, student evaluations are often central to the reappointment, promotion, and tenure processes. While some institutions have taken proactive measures to mitigate the effect of the pandemic on these processes, uncertainty about how review committees will consider student teaching evaluations from these terms can increase anxiety for educators.

There are other problematic issues with student evaluations. Current tools used to survey student opinions about their learning experiences are flawed. Meta-analysis indicates there is little to no relationship between what students learn and how they evaluate their teachers (1, 2). Common evaluation survey methods also have well-established biases against women and people of color (3). There are clear steps institutions can take to mitigate these issues, including educating students on the important aspects of teaching evaluations (4), adapting evaluation tools to decrease bias (5), and adopting multi-faceted evaluation methods (6).

Addressing these systemic issues around teaching evaluations is critical. However, what can you do now with your current teaching evaluations to help shape and improve your teaching? Here are a few things for you to consider:

 

  1. Are they venting? This has been a difficult time for all of us, including your students. Are they using this evaluation to release some of their frustrations? If so, attempt to disconnect the intensity of the complaint from constructive points.
  2. What are the common themes? What are your students saying? Do you see similar comments across your student evaluations? Are comments focused on specific lectures or activities? Course design? Grading? Communication? Take note of these themes.
  3. What are the institutional expectations for teaching? What aspects of your teaching are most important to your institution? Conversations with your department chair or other mentors may help you prioritize the actions you take in response to your evaluations. If it is possible to gain access to comparative evaluation data, this will provide further insight into your own evaluations.
  4. What is the context for this course? What are you trying to accomplish in this course? Are you implementing an evidence-based pedagogy which steers away from lecture? If so, students could be scoring you lower because, even though they are learning more, they don’t perceive this increased learning (7). Are you communicating your expectations for this type of learning, so they know what to expect?
  5. What incremental changes are you going to make next time you teach the course? Given the student evaluation themes, institutional expectations, the course context, and your strengths, what changes are you going to prioritize? Focus on incremental changes, as it gives you an opportunity to test and assess the impact of these small changes. For example, are you going to be more intentional about explaining to your students why you teach the way you do and what they should expect? Are you going to incorporate more structure or feedback in your assignments? Are you going to decrease content to focus on large concepts? This would also be a great time to bounce ideas around with colleagues and mentors – or check-out different options in the literature.

 

While reviewing your evaluations and considering your next steps, document the themes you decide to address. Pull a few representative comments from your teaching evaluations and write a paragraph or two about changes you are planning in response to the comments. This documentation will be helpful for the next time you teach the course. This reflection can also inform self-narratives required for the review process or–if you are looking for another job–crafting your teaching statement. This reflection is even more important as you consider what aspects of your teaching were particularly effective during this academic year of pandemic teaching. You may want to keep successful aspects of your course even if we transition back into a more traditional educational setting.

A huge thank you to educators who made it work this year! Your students and colleagues appreciate everything you have done. A special thank you to those who discussed your experiences with teaching evaluations with me, but wished to remain anonymous, in preparation for my symposium presentation at EB2021, hosted by the APS Career Opportunities in Physiology Committee, entitled “Using Teaching Evaluations to Enhance Your Career Trajectory” from which this post was based.

 

References

 

  1. Uttl B, White CA, Gonzalez DW. Meta-analysis of faculty’s teaching effectiveness: Student evaluation of teaching ratings and student learning are not related. Stud Educ Eval 54: 22–42, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.stueduc.2016.08.007.
  2. Boring A, Ottoboni K. Student Evaluations of Teaching (Mostly) Do Not Measure Teaching Effectiveness. ScienceOpen Research, 2016. DOI: 10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-EDU.AETBZC.v1
  3. Chávez K, Mitchell KMW. Exploring Bias in Student Evaluations: Gender, Race, and Ethnicity. PS Polit Sci Polit 53: 270–274, 2020. DOI: 10.1017/S1049096519001744.
  4. Hopper M. Student Evaluation of Teaching – The Next 100 Years [Online]. PECOP Blog: 2019. https://blog.lifescitrc.org/pecop/2019/06/21/student-evaluation-of-teaching-the-next-100-years/ [2 May 2021].
  5. Peterson DAM, Biederman LA, Andersen D, Ditonto TM, Roe K. Mitigating gender bias in student evaluations of teaching. PLOS ONE 14: e0216241, 2019. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0216241.
  6. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Recognizing and Evaluating Science Teaching in Higher Education: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief [Online]. The National Academies Press: 12, 2020. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25685/recognizing-and-evaluating-science-teaching-in-higher-education-proceedings-of.
  7. Deslauriers L, McCarty LS, Miller K, Callaghan K, Kestin G. Measuring actual learning versus feeling of learning in response to being actively engaged in the classroom. Proc Natl Acad Sci 116: 19251–19257, 2019. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821936116.
Katie Johnson, Ph.D., is an experienced practitioner and evaluator of inclusive teaching and mentoring practices. Dr. Johnson advises and serves on national STEM education initiatives and committees, working with a diverse network of collaborators. Her work has been recognized by the American Physiological Society Teaching Section, as she has been presented both the Research Recognition and the New Investigator Awards. As an independent consultant at Trail Build, LLC, Dr. Johnson assists institutions and professional organizations as they develop, implement, and assess innovative solutions to curricular and programmatic challenges. Prior to becoming an independent consultant, Dr. Johnson was Chair and Associate Professor of Biology at Beloit College. She earned her Ph.D. in the Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics at Vanderbilt University and her B.S. from Beloit College. Disclosure: Dr. Johnson serves as an external consultant for APS.
April 20th, 2021
Less is more – focusing on the core concepts

When it comes to teaching a subject in depth and breadth, an instructor may face the challenges of limited time versus unlimited contents. To this end, the instructor may focus on covering as much as possible material in a lecture, or on the key concepts that help prioritize contents and overarch a myriad of information. The former strategy is highly content-centered and can be overwhelming to both the instructor and students, and in fact, studies have shown that instruction time is not necessarily proportional to learning outcome [1]. By contrast, the latter strategy makes time for the instructor and student to interact, discuss, and apply the key concepts to problem solving activities, which fosters an active and interactive learning environment. In line with the evidence showing that students benefit more from an active and interactive learning experience [2], educators have called for less coverage and more inquiry aiming high beyond just the facts so that student’s learning can be enhanced by talking, writing, and collaborating [3-4].

How can one effectively prioritize contents by focusing on the key concepts pertaining to the latter strategy? One of the possible ways is to use learning objectives or anticipated learning outcomes to navigate content prioritization. It is overwhelming to start with materials for teaching planning due to fast growing research and knowledge explosion. However, using a backward design may change the game. Backward design of a course starts with developing clear learning objectives, which aligns selection of lecture contents with anticipated learning outcomes [5-6]. For instance, to accomplish the objective of building students’ critical thinking skills, an instructor will strategically plan time for not only covering materials but also information processing and application. Other than concentrating student learning on facts only, the class will be fueled by problem-based collaborative learning. To this end, it is critical for the instructor to elaborate the key principles or concepts, the very guides students need to address complex problems that demand more than simple factual answers. The collection of facts relevant to the class can be provided as supplemental information or resources for students to look up for problem solving, while it can limit student learning as a major commitment of memorization.

Mastery of basic principles plus being detail-oriented is required for success in experimentation and authentic research in a lab course [7]. To this end, students are expected to pay attention to experimental details in addition to core concepts, raising the question as to how course contents can be prioritized. First, the strategy of backward design still applies. Secondly, the learning objectives or anticipated learning outcomes can be defined such that they focus on core principles and transferrable or interchangeable skills. For instance, the course Laboratory Techniques in Molecular Nutrition covers several sets of lab techniques, one of which is immunoassays. Immunoassays represent a set of methods based on antigen-antibody binding reactions, including Western blotting (WB), immunoprecipitation (IP), co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), ChIP sequencing (ChIPsec), immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunocytochemistry (ICC), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Each method may take 1-2 weeks (5 hours/week) to cover the principles and operational procedures, and the set of immunoassays alone may occupy a semester. Obviously, it is very challenging to elaborate on each of the immunoassays within a semester given the limited time and resources, plus the needs to cover non-immunoassay techniques. However, it is practical for students to learn about the techniques within 4-5 weeks (5 hours/week) with a prioritized focus by elaborating on the core concepts shared by the eight immunoassays and contrasting the major differences among them. The core principles are shared by all the immunoassays regarding immobilization, blocking, immunobinding, washing, and detection processes. Yet, they are different in assay microenvironments including the solid phases, blocking solutions, antibodies, targets of interest, washing solutions, and detection reagents and instruments. Priority can be given to elaborating the core concepts and major differences (1-2 weeks) and to practicing the most used and accessible immunoassays such as WB, IP, and ELISA (3 weeks).

Practically, use of flipped classrooms can further enhance students’ mastery of key concepts and their ability to apply the concepts to solving problems. In a flipped classroom, the instructor lectures less in class but the course materials and recorded lectures are uploaded to the course management site (e.g., Canvas) for students to study in advance. Students tend to learn more through problem-solving activities with the instructor and peers in class that build critical thinking skills. As such, the learning outcomes can be increased and go beyond the contents by enhancing students’ critical thinking skills, which will benefit their lifelong learning after college.

Taken together, focusing on facts less in class but targeting core concepts and knowledge application more may serve as an effective strategy to build students’ critical thinking skills. The “less” by no means refers to an easy class. Instead, both the instructor and students spend more time outside the class preparing and studying course materials. This is to prepare everyone for more higher-order-thinking activities (e.g., analysis, evaluation, and application) in class. The “less” for “more” pedagogy may benefit student’s lifelong learning experience.

 

References and further reading

[1] Andersen SC, Humlum MK, Nandrup AB. Increasing instruction time in school does increase learning.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2016 Jul 5;113(27):7481-4.

[2] Dolan EL, Collins JP. We must teach more effectively: here are four ways to get started. Mol Biol Cell. 2015 Jun 15;26(12):2151-5.

[3] Luckie DB, Aubry JR, Marengo BJ, Rivkin AM, Foos LA, Maleszewski JJ. Less teaching, more learning: 10-yr study supports increasing student learning through less coverage and more inquiry. Adv Physiol Educ. 2012 Dec;36(4):325-35.

[4] DiCarlo SE. Too much content, not enough thinking, and too little fun! Adv Physiol Educ. 2009 Dec;33(4):257-64.

[5] Allen D, Tanner K. Putting the horse back in front of the cart: using visions and decisions about high-quality learning experiences to drive course design. CBE Life Sci Educ. 2007, 6(2): 85–89

[6] Hills M, Harcombe K, Bernstein N. Using anticipated learning outcomes for backward design of a molecular cell biology Course-based Undergraduate Research Experience. Biochem Mol Biol Educ. 2020 Jul;48(4):311-319.

[7] DiCarlo SE. Cell biology should be taught as science is practiced. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Apr;7(4):290-6.

Dr. Zhiyong Cheng received his PhD in Analytical Biochemistry from Peking University, after which he conducted postdoctoral research at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) and Harvard Medical School. Dr. Cheng is now an Assistant Professor of Nutritional Science at the University of Florida. He has taught several undergraduate- and graduate-level courses (lectures and lab) in human nutrition and metabolism (including metabolic physiology). As the principal investigator in a research lab studying metabolic diseases (obesity and type 2 diabetes), Dr. Cheng has been actively developing and implementing new pedagogical approaches to build students’ critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
April 8th, 2021
Synchronous and asynchronous experiences in Advanced Exercise Physiology Courses: what teaching tools work best for my students?

Covid-19 caught all of us off guard, but educators were hit particularly hard and uniquely. I already have flipped classroom teaching and active learning, so the transition was not too difficult for me. However, I found myself incorporating many technological innovations. Was I doing too much? Which features were helping my students, and which ones were overwhelming? In this blog, I want to share some of the strategies I used with undergraduate students taking Advanced Exercise Physiology synchronously and asynchronously.

 

Additionally, within this blog, I am sharing the student’s perceptions of these technological innovations. In total, fifty-two students enrolled in different sections of “Advanced Exercise Physiology” culminating undergraduate experience (CUE) were invited to participate in a short survey regarding their learning experiences during this current Spring 2021 semester. A total of thirty-nine (n=39) students completed the confidential survey about whether different technological innovations helped them understand the material and study.

Who completed the survey?

Figure 1: Fifty-two students enrolled either in synchronous or asynchronous undergraduate advanced exercise physiology sections were invited to participate, and thirty-nine (n=39) responses were obtained. Seventy-two percent of the responders were enrolled in the asynchronous section, and 27.78% were enrolled in the synchronous section.

 

 

Video assignment for glucose metabolism

 During pre-COVID-19 times, I would teach using active-learning team-based instruction. For the first team-based assignment, student teams were asked to discuss and explain in easy terms one of the most difficult topics for my students: glucose metabolism. For this activity, I would bring Legos, markers of different colors, magnets, and other toys; and students were asked to use the materials and make a video of the complete oxidation of a glucose molecule. This in-class, graded assignment seem to help students to understand the metabolic pathways.  I modified the project due to distance learning, so each student has to create a video using any material desired to explain in simple words (without chemical formulas). This assignment is based on the constructivism theory of learning. It makes it innovative because the students learned that glucose is a six-carbon molecule that has to be fully “broken down” (oxidated) through different stages. Once they understand the steps, they could “name” each step and each enzyme. Some students used coins, Legos, or wrote down the step while explaining the process verbally. Some examples of the submissions can be seen in the links below:

Example submission glycolysis  one and example complete glucose oxidation.

 Students perception on making a video assignment for glucose metabolism

Figure 2: Students’ responses to the question “Having to make the video of metabolism in assignment two helped me understand glucose metabolism.” 71.43% responded true (it was helpful), and 28.57% responded false (it was not helpful)

 

 

 

Incorporation of Virtual Lab Experiences using Visible Body and Lt Kuracloud platforms.

One of the main concerns for me was to maintain and increase engagement while teaching virtually or remotely. I incorporated the Lt Kuracloud, a platform for interactive assignments, immediate feedback, videos, and physiology laboratory experiences in all my courses. I took advantage of the free trial, and I used it for some assignments. I received unsolicited emails from students expressing how helpful they found these assignments.  I also used Visible Body Anatomy and Physiology, which I used for lectures. I recommended it to students as supplemental material and for self-graded quizzes. Visible Body Anatomy and Physiology is available at no cost to students as our Institution’s library obtained the subscription for all the students.

Students’ perceptions: “How helpful do you find the following features? “

Figure 3: Responses to the question: How helpful do you find the following features (from 0 to 100 being 0 not useful to 100 very useful). The mean value for assignments in Lt Kuracloud was 79.08/100 (sd= 21), and for Visible Body was 74.74/100 (sd= 24)

 

Old Reliable Discussion Board

I recently completed my training on Quality Matters (QM) certification (1), and so my courses follow the rubrics of QM Higher Education General Standards. Specifically, QM Module 1 suggests using an introductory welcoming video encouraging the students to introduce themselves to the class using a video, a meme, a photo, or text. The best, and probably the only feature on Blackboard to do this is the “Discussion Board.” The discussion board is a great feature that allows students to increase participation. After all, students are the biggest consumers of social media, videos, and memes. The Discussion Board should be the closest FERPA approved version of TikTok or Facebook, right? WRONG! It worked fine for the first thread entitled “welcome,” most of the students responded by typing to answer the questions. Nobody made a voice thread, a meme, or a video. Afterward, I encouraged participation on the discussion board by posting questions and suggesting posting questions on the discussion board. After a few “virtual crickets” on Discussion Board, I quit posting questions there and developed interactive lectures with pop-up quizzes. As expected, Discussion Board was not very popular among my students.

Students’ perceptions: “How helpful do you find the discussion board on Blackboard? “

 Figure 4: Responses to the question: How helpful do you find the following features (from 0 to 100 being 0 not useful to 100 very useful). The mean value for the discussion board was 43.08/100 (sd= 25).

 Interactive pre-recorded lectures

Pre-recorded lectures are integral components of my synchronous and asynchronous course sections. These are developed using the interactive feature in Camtasia, in which I developed animated lectures. Thus, students are asked to watch the lessons and complete short quizzes that provide immediate feedback. If the concept is mastered, the student continues watching. If not, they are redirected to the lecture or part of the lecture where the concept is explained.

 Students’ perceptions: “How helpful do you find the interactive pre-recorded lectures? “

Figure 5: Responses to the question: How helpful do you find the following features (from 0 to 100 being 0 not useful to 100 very useful). The mean value for interactive pre-recorded lectures was 79.27/100 (sd= 16.8), and for Visible Body was 81.74/100 (sd= 17.8)

 

Quizlet and Quizlet live game

Like many educators worldwide, I teach my students and support their learning throughout our virtual synchronous meetings. Indeed, this is not easy. One day, as I was finishing my class, I heard screams and laughs! My ten-year-old was having so much fun in his most favorite subject. What is going on? I asked, “it was a close one,” my son said, “I got second place.”  It turned out that he was playing a “Quizlet Game.” Quizlet and Quizlet live have been used by teachers and students to reinforce learned material. I decided to try it, and I created a teacher profile to play games during the remote lectures. Every class, I started a Quizlet game; students use their phones or computers to play a race (team and individual). They play a “race” at the beginning of the class and again at the end of the class. This low-risk activity provides me with important information about misconceptions or concepts that are not mastered yet. Students play again towards the end of the class. This simple activity takes 10 minutes of instruction (5 minutes each “race”). However, it has been proven to be both helpful and fun for the students. Quizlet live was used only in my synchronous classes, but the Quizlet study sets were available to both synchronous and asynchronous sections.

I used this with graduate students enrolled in Human Physiology in the previous semester, and it was a hit! Students loved it, and class after class, this became very competitive. Not only were my students very well prepared for class, but also the competition made it so much fun!

Similar to Quizlet are such programs as Kahoot, Brainscape,  and others that are available for free or very affordable options.

Students’ perceptions: “How helpful do you find Quizlet study sets and Quizlet live? “

Figure 6: Responses to the question: How helpful do you find the following features (from 0 to 100 being 0 not useful to 100 very useful). The mean value for Quizlet sets was 76.86/100 (sd= 24), and for Quizlet live was 68.31/100 (sd= 28). One limitation is that most responders were students in the asynchronous section who did not participate in Quizlet live games.

 

MS Teams meetings and/or virtual office hours

 I chose Microsoft Teams (MS) for my virtual meetings simply because it is widely adopted at my Institution, and I prefer to keep it simple for students. For my synchronous section, I used a flipped virtual model, in which we meet once per week, and the other day they work on their own on assignments. I did this to avoid screen burnout students in the synchronous section. However, I have been happily surprised with students attending remote classes and the various office hours I provide. Yes, I do provide different office hours; very much this semester, I made every space available on my calendar as extra office hours. I realize that for many, meeting online for “virtual office hours” is more accessible to them (and perhaps less intimidating) than attending office hours in my office, as we did pre-pandemic.

Why did I offer so many office hours? First of all, because I could. Since I can’t conduct research studies with humans during the pandemic, it freed some time I had set aside for data collection to teaching.

Additionally, not driving to and from campus saved me an average of 75 minutes per day, which allowed me to have another office hour option. In reality, I did not use all these hours in meetings with students. Many times nobody needed to meet. However, there were a couple of times in which I’d meet with a student who was struggling. Not with the class or the content. But struggling with life, some students had somebody close to them sick or dying; some lost their job or financial aid, some were working exceptionally long hours as essential workers. For some, isolation was too much. One student, in particular, told me recently, “I do not have any questions today; I just needed some social interaction.” Flexible and various virtual office hours seemed beneficial for students, particularly for those in asynchronous e-learning experiences.

Students’ perceptions: “How helpful do you find the MS Teams meetings and virtual office hours? “

 

Figure 7: Responses to the question: How helpful do you find the following features (from 0 to 100 being 0 not useful to 100 very useful). The mean value for MS Teams and Virtual Office Hours was 75.86/100 (sd= 21).

 

 

 Conclusions

 Like most higher education instructors, I had to adapt quickly and shift to e-learning due to the pandemic. Fortunately, I had already taught online several times before and introduced several components to my flipped courses. However, I still struggled to find more interactive ways to keep my students engaged. Not only educators have to deal with the mental exhaustion of finding pedagogical tools that work in this new scenario when we have not had the time to produce evidence-based successful approaches to teaching remotely. But also, we are teaching distraught students. From the scarce but rapidly growing literature, we know that “our college students are currently struggling to stay hopeful and positive in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic” (2). When asked about their feelings during the transition to virtual classes, students reported that they felt “uncertain” (59.5%), “anxious” (50.7%), “nervous” (41.2%), and “sad” (37.2%). (3) We have to teach students that are dealing with a lot of negative emotions and stress. We, educators, are also living with many of those emotions. My goal with this blog was to share some of my experiences teaching virtually and provide some ideas for any physiology educator that may need them.

References

Standards from the Quality Matters Higher Education Rubric, Sixth Edition. Quality Matters. Retrieved from Specific Review Standards from the QM Higher Education Rubric, Sixth Edition

  • Munsell, S. E., O’Malley, L. & Mackey, C. (2020). Coping with COVID. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 31(3), 101-109.
  • Murphy, L., Eduljee, N. B., Croteau, K. College Student Transition to Synchronous Virtual Classes during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Northeastern United States. Pedagogical Research,5(4), em0078. https://doi.org/10.29333/pr/8485
Dr. Terson de Paleville teaches Advanced Exercise Physiology, Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology, and Human Physiology courses. Her research interests include motor control and exercise-induced neuroplasticity. In particular, Dr. Terson de Paleville has investigated the effects of activity-based therapy on respiratory muscles and trunk motor control after spinal cord injury. Additional research project involves the assessment of the effects of exercise training in elementary and middle school students on balance, visual efficiency, motor proficiency, motor control and behavior in the classroom and at home. Dr. Terson de Paleville is interested in elucidating any links between physical activity and academic skills and performance.

 

March 29th, 2021
A Teaching Carol: The past, present and future of my teaching
The pandemic has been a time of introspection for some. The lack of places to go, people to see, and things to do has been coupled with a forced reevaluation of how we go about almost every aspect of our lives. There is also a measure of concern about what the world will look like once we exit this pandemic. Many of us who are in regular staff and faculty positions are fortunate enough to be safe and secure in our own little bubbles, and thinking about emerging from that brings with it some anxiety.

In talking through ideas for this post, my wife suggested A Christmas Carol and the idea of taking stock of my career and feelings about teaching. Where am I? Where do I want to be? Questions that we all struggle with, and questions that may have been brought to the forefront during the pandemic. Please forgive me publicly doing a little self career counseling, as well as a little license with the A Christmas Carol concept…

The Ghost of Teaching Past (Pre-pandemic):

The Ghost of Teaching Past takes the form of my 4-year Review Committee, which just submitted my letter a couple of days ago. Preparing my materials for my 4-year review, I had to sit down and reflect on both my recent work and on my long-term accomplishments since coming to University of Delaware. Before the pandemic, if I had been asked to briefly describe my teaching I’d have said it was a “work in progress”.

I was fortunate the Department of Physiology at University of Kentucky valued teaching, and that I had the mentorship of Dr. Dexter Speck (among others) to get me started on the right track as an educator. Actually getting started as a full-time college instructor in 2011 made me realize that although I was aware of what I should be doing, that didn’t really mean I knew how to actually put in practice while actually doing that job. I was thrown in the deep end, and had to do a lot of on the job learning (sorry NJIT students!). As time progressed, I figured out that I preferred to have students focus on really learning a few fundamental concepts, as opposed to conducting a whirlwind tour through everything. I began using more case studies and data in my courses, but grand plans for massive course overhauls were subsumed by the day-to-day. I still lectured a bit too much, and although I talked a lot about testing higher order concepts in my classes, we probably ended up in the border country between lower and higher more often than not. I was neither universally loved by my students nor universally despised. Somewhere in the middle of things, I suppose. But always at least vaguely improving as I learned and became more experienced.

Starting off, there was nothing in my career but the teaching. I wasn’t as involved in APS as I am currently. I had no scholarship or research of any sort. No expectations of university or professional service. Plenty of time to focus on my teaching and on my students. But then that changed. I began to get “career aspirations”. I started pursuing opportunities to be more involved in things I was interested in, beyond just the teaching, and forgot how to say no when asked to be involved in things I was maybe a little less interested in.

Maybe a bit like Scrooge, I wandered away a bit from my initial focus, in pursuit of that career. But, that is what you are supposed to do right? Get involved. Publish. Get promoted. Become well known in your field. Move into administration someday.

The Ghost of Teaching Present (Pandemic):

The Ghost of my Teaching Present takes the form of our newest puppy, Ladybird, who arrived in the opening days of quarantine. Early after we got her, she would sit on the desk and fall asleep while I taught, providing the perfect commentary on my work. Later, she would come bouncing downstairs to check-in on what was happening when she remembered that there were other people in the house, and pee on the rug at my feet if I didn’t get up and take her outside.

All summer my institution debated their fall plans, alternating between the optimism of a fully in-person semester, various versions of hybrid curricula, and being fully online. We ultimately settled on almost exclusively online, with only a handful of small and specialized courses meeting in person. The constantly changing plan made it difficult to actually move forward with preparing, both because you didn’t actually know what you were preparing for and also because just the idea of preparing for all of the potential possibilities was mentally exhausting. This led into a very difficult and dispiriting semester. I was burnt out.

Spring then proceeded in largely the same fashion, just (thankfully) without the same back and forth on in-person vs. remote course delivery plans. If this was the montage segment of the movie, you’d see the fast-forwarding of the days going by, with me sitting in slightly different places around the house, wearing slightly different college hoodies, dogs coming and going from wherever I was to see what I was doing and bark at me for not taking them for walks, and any of those days could really be any other.

This is a common story though. For many educators around the country, and around the world, it has not been a matter of IF someone will experience burn out during the last 12+ months, but WHEN. And, of course, a large portion of our ranks were already teetering on the brink of burn-out before the pandemic ever began (1,2). There are many reasons for faculty burn-out in 2020, and that has been written about extensively (3,4) – for example, did you know there is a burn-out scale? (5). For me, it was the constant time in front of the computer and the blurring of the line between work and personal time even further than it was before the pandemic. Back when things were “normal” I had a fairly long commute, but that allowed me to mentally and emotionally shift from work mode to home mode and vice versa. During the pandemic my commute has been about 15ft. We also can’t forget the overriding stress that was 2020 regardless of what you do for a living and where in the world that you are.

It was also that teaching just didn’t feel as fulfilling. I actually hated teaching towards the end of the fall 2020 semester. I didn’t look forward to classes. There was a feeling of isolation. Teaching to a computer screen full of black boxes with names, but mostly no faces. No feedback. Conversations via the chat box. Turning down letter of recommendation requests because even though I know the name, I can’t attach a face to that name, or a single interaction that I had with them. We’d gotten away from what made me like teaching in the first place.

As we catch back up, it is the middle of the spring 2021 semester. I have actually come to realize that I was starting to make better connections with students than I typically would have most semesters. Yes, I wasn’t chatting with the handful of people who sat in the front row every day anymore, but I was learning more about more of the students than I had before. And, they were learning more about me. Having the glimpse into my life through the lens of my webcam, seeing my pets and kids, all of my stuff and my wife’s stuff on the bookshelves and walls. This leads to conversations that might not have happened otherwise. For example, during an office hours appointment, one of my dogs came downstairs to bark at me, and this made the student’s dog start barking, and that led to a 20min conversation about dog adoption and training. Surprisingly, no one has said a word about the life-size Slimer from Ghostbusters that sits over my shoulder…

In class, though much of what I hear from my students is via the chat box and direct messages, I am hearing from what feels like a wider cross-section of the class. Even when teaching online there are the students who always volunteer to answer questions, but now for some questions I’ll get numerous responses all at once. I think this also helps me avoid some of my implicit biases, because I am not calling on people, but fielding what comes in. Despite being terrified to look at my course evaluations from spring and fall as part of my review process, I actually found them to be much more positive and supportive than I could have possibly imagined.

The pandemic forced me to reorganize all of my course materials so that students could largely navigate through them on their own. Since it was miserable to talk at a computer screen, I finally ditched all my lecturing and made over class time to be solely focused on working on and talking through problems, and then just-in-time teaching built off of group quizzes and surveys asking students what they needed more time/explanation. I try to be more intentional with my communication to the class, but I am still working on the whole “sending a weekly email announcement” to my classes routine.

Do I enjoy teaching again? No, not yet. But, it is better. My courses are better organized though, and I think I have gotten back on track with fully flipping my courses and being more student centered. As difficult as it was, 2020 did positively impact my teaching for the long-run. I encourage everyone to look for those positives amidst all of the negative feelings, and think about how they can carry forward to the future.

The Ghost of Teaching Yet to Come:

The Ghost of my Teaching Yet to Come doesn’t seem to have arrived yet. I don’t think it will come in quite as bleak a form as the one seen by Scrooge in A Christmas Carol though, and that in and of itself is a progress from a few months ago.

At the moment, it looks like in the upcoming fall semester we will still be online for the large class that I teach and others of that size, but moving back to in person for most (if not all) smaller classes. This means sort of a transition semester back to “normal” – but how does that transition work, and do I even want to make it?

Do I want to go back to campus? Honestly, I am not sure. But, I am definitely not as excited about it as many of my colleagues and my students. I don’t miss my office on campus, I prefer my home office. I definitely don’t miss the lecture halls that I am stuck teaching in. Of course, the feeling of a campus full of students will probably help me warm to the idea once we get back to “normal”. In the short term, I do know that I am not looking forward to teaching in person in the fall. Many of you have conquered this already, but I am not looking forward to trying to teach through a mask, or figure out how to run my new human physiology lab course with the students socially distancing.

For my big physiology course, I actually feel like I might be a better teacher online, at least when compared to being forced to teach in old, out-of-date, stadium seating lecture halls. It is easier to field responses from all of my students via chat in zoom. It is easier (at least it seems so) to have students work in small groups than it is in that cramped lecture hall, with no space for laptops, or the ability to actually turn and face each other. And, I feel less pressure to lecture since I am not spending class standing behind a lectern in an auditorium.

The pandemic has initiated a change in approach for educators – a widespread, forced adoption of technology and new teaching practices (6,7). How will the increased comfort with technology, on the part of the both teachers and students change education going forward? Now that more teachers and students have had experience with online education, will preferences shift? (8) As a parent and teacher, I’ve joked with others that there will be no more snow days because we have set up these systems to allow remote learning.

Will students want and expect more of an on demand, 24-7 approach to their courses? Will students (and parents) feel that the “college experience” is worth the extra costs associated with coming to campus, or will they flock to institutions where they can learn online wherever/whenever they want?

Or, will the future look like what I think my fall semester will look like? Big “lecture” courses online; small classes and labs in person. Many of us already taught a combination of in person and online courses before the pandemic, but will that become the norm? How much will we as educators even have a say in it?

Those are the details, but what about the big picture? As for what directions my career takes, I have even less answers. Despite the nice, neat boxes quantifying our time devoted to particular tasks on a distribution of effort report, I don’t think any of us have really figured out the proper balance between our teaching, our scholarship, our service and the rest of our lives.

May we all gain the insight of the next steps to take and emerge from this pandemic sure of our directions!

Dr. Chris Trimby earned his Bachelor’s degree in Biological Sciences from Northern Illinois University, and a Doctorate in Physiology from the University of Kentucky. In graduate school he realized that bench research wasn’t the career direction that he wanted to pursue, and so he started teaching more and more. Instead of doing a post-doc after graduate school he instead took a lecturer position at New Jersey Institute of Technology, where he had the opportunity to design and teach a wide range of biology courses. Dr. Trimby was able to parlay that experience into a position at the Wisconsin Institute for Science Education and Community Engagement (WISCIENCE) directing the Teaching Fellows program. Wanting to get back into the classroom himself, instead of just mentoring instructors, Dr. Trimby moved to the University of Delaware to teach in the Integrated Biology & Chemistry Program (iBC) and Department of Biological Sciences. Not wanting to completely leave the world of helping the next generation of science educators, Dr. Trimby helped to develop APS’s Teaching Experiences for BioScience Educators (TEBioED) program, which enrolled its first cohort in 2020 as an extension of the virtual APS Institute on Teaching & Learning (APS ITL).

Citations:

  1. Alves, P.C., Oliveira, A.d.F., Paro, H.B.M.d.S. (2019). Quality of life and burnout among faculty members: How much does the field of knowledge matter? PLoS ONE, 14(3), 1–12. https://doi. org/10.1371/journal.pone.0214217
  2. Khan, F., Khan, Q., Kanwal, A., & Bukhair, N. (2018). Impact of job stress and social support with job burnout among universities faculty members. Paradigms: A Research Journal of Commerce, Economics, and Social Sciences, 12(2), 201–205. https://doi.org/10.24312/paradigms120214.
  3. Petit E. Faculty Members Are Suffering Burnout. These Strategies Could Help. [Online]. CHE 2021.https://www.chronicle.com/article/faculty-members-are-suffering-burnout-so-some-colleges-have-used-these-strategies-to-help [22 Mar. 2021]
  4. Gewin V. Pandemic burnout is rampant in academia. Nature 591: 489-491, 2021.
  5. Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1986). The Maslach Burnout Inventory: Manual (2nd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  6. Burnett J, Burke K, Stephens N, Bose I, Bonaccorsi C, Wade A, Awino J. How the COVID-19 Pandemic Changed Chemistry Instruction at a Large Public University in the Midwest: Challenges Met, (Some) Obstacles Overcome, and Lessons Learned. Journal of Chemical Education 97: 2793-2799, 2020.
  7. Lashley M, Acevedo M, Cotner S, Lortie C. How the ecology and evolution of the COVID‐19 pandemic changed learning. Ecology and Evolution 10: 12412-12417, 2020.
  8. Diep F. The Pandemic May Have Permanently Altered Campuses. Here’s How. [Online]. CHE 2021.https://www.chronicle.com/article/the-pandemic-may-have-permanently-altered-campuses-heres-how?utm_source=Iterable&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=campaign_2126204_nl_Academe-Today_date_20210322&cid=at&source=&sourceId= [22 Mar. 2021].
March 22nd, 2021
Repurposing the notecard to create a concept map for blood pressure regulation

One amazing aspect of physiology is the coordinated, almost choreographed function of millions of moving parts.  The body has mastered multitasking, maintaining hundreds of parameters within narrow and optimal ranges at the same time.  This very aspect of physiology fuels our passion and enthusiasm for teaching physiology and piques the interests of students.  The networks of numerous overt and subtle interdependent mechanisms and signaling pathways between multiple organs and tissues that regulate plasma calcium or energy intake, for example, also represent major challenges to understanding and learning physiology for students.  We ask our students to combine the wisdom of two old sayings: “You can’t see the forest for the trees’, and “The devil is in the details.”  They need to understand both the bigger picture of the whole animal and the nuanced interlinking of mechanisms, and even molecules, that seamlessly and dynamically maintain different parameters within narrow ranges.  It can be frustrating and discouraging for students.  Furthermore, passing with high marks in systems physiology or anatomy-physiology II is a criterion for eligibility to apply to various health profession programs.  As educators we must acknowledge the complexity of physiology and find ways to help our students literally see and master smaller sections of the larger regulatory network so they can recreate and master the larger network.

For even the best prepared student, as well as the student who cannot take all recommended prerequisite courses for A&P-II or basic physiology, the collection of numerous parts, mechanisms, equations and connections, principles, and laws can represent an obstacle to learning.  Student comments such as, “There is so much to know.”, “It’s so complicated.”, and “Physiology is hard.” are accurate and fair, but also warrant validation.  A little bit of validation and communicating the challenges we encountered as students goes a long way in helping our students’ willingness to endure and continue to strive.  Physiology courses are not impossible, but they are difficult and might well be the most difficult courses a student takes.  I will not pretend or lie to my students.  If I were to dismiss physiology as a whole or a given concept as easy and simple, I risk my student thinking they should be learning principles effortlessly or instinctively and begin to doubt themselves and give up.  It helps to confess apprehensions you yourself felt when first learning various physiological concepts or phenomena.  As a novice physiology student, I had many moments at which I wanted to tap out.  ne major example was my introduction to the beautiful, albeit daunting display of all the electrical and mechanical events that occur in only the heart during a single cardiac cycle in just 0.8 seconds, i.e., the Wiggers diagram.  Every time I project this diagram on the screen, I give students a moment to take it in and listen for the gasps or moans.  I admit to my students that upon seeing that diagram for the first time I looked for the nearest exit and thought to myself, ‘Are you kiddin’ me?”  Students laugh nervously.  They sigh in relief when I tell them that my professor broke down the diagram one panel at a time before putting all together; his approached worked, and that is what I will do for them.  Dr. Carl Wiggers was committed to teaching physiology and developed the diagram over 100 years ago as a teaching tool for medical students (1).  The diagram is instrumental in teaching normal cardiac physiology, as well as pathophysiology of congenital valve abnormalities and septal defects.  Nevertheless, students still need help to understand the diagram.  Again, here an example of the function of just one organ, the heart, being a central element to a larger network that regulates a major parameter – blood pressure.  Learning regulation of blood pressure can be an uphill battle for many students.

Cardiovascular physiology is typically a single unit in an undergraduate physiology course, and it is often the most challenging and difficult exam of the semester.  Several years ago, when preparing to teach this section in an AP-II course I felt compelled to find ways to help students break-down and reconstruct pieces of complex regulation of blood pressure.  I considered the many high-tech digital learning resources and online videos available to our students but wondered whether those resources help or hinder students.  I was also looking for tools that would facilitate multisensory learning, which is shown to yield better memory and recall (2).  Despite all these high-tech resources, I noticed students were still avid users of notecards and were convinced they held the secret to success in AP-I and thus, must also be the key to success in AP-II or systems physiology.  I found this quite amusing, because we used notecards back when I was in college in the 80s – when there were no digital learning platforms and highlighters only came in yellow.  Students tote around stacks of hand-written, color coded notecards that grow taller as the semester progresses, but often their comprehension and ability to connect one concept or mechanism to the next does not increase with the height of the stack.  Students often memorize terms on note cards but cannot readily connect the mechanism listed on one card to that on the next card or explain the consequence of that mechanism failing.  Around this time a non-science colleague was talking to me about her successful use of concept maps with her students.  To me, concept maps look a lot like biochemical pathways or physiological network diagrams.  It dawned on me.  I did not need to reinvent the wheel or make a newer better teaching tool.  I simply needed to help my students connect The Notecards and practice arranging them to better pattern regulatory networks.  Students were already writing a term on one side of the card and a definition and other notes on the back.  Why not build on that activity and more deliberately guide students to use cards to build a concept map of the network for regulation of blood pressure which is central to cardiovascular physiology?

 

Blood pressure is a physiological endpoint regulated by a nexus of autoregulatory, neural and hormonal mechanisms and multiple organs and tissues.  Blood pressure is directly dependent on cardiac output, vascular peripheral resistance, and blood volume, but can be altered by a tiered network of numerous neural, hormonal and cellular mechanisms that directly or indirectly modulate any one of the three primary determinants.  The expansive network, e.g., numerous organs and tissues, and multiple and intersecting effects of different mechanisms within the network, e.g., the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system modulates both vascular resistance and blood volume) make it difficult to see the network in its entirety.  Nevertheless, students must understand and master the entire network, the individual mechanisms, and the nuances.  Thus, in preparing for the cardiovascular section and planning how to implement the concept map, I made a list of all components that comprised the regulatory network for blood pressure with the first terms being blood pressure, cardiac output, vascular peripheral resistance, and blood volume.  At this point in the semester, the students had learned the basics of cellular respiration and metabolism.  I began the very first cardiovascular lecture with an illustration of the human circulatory system projected on the screen as I worked at the white board.  In the center of the board, I drew a cell with a single mitochondrion and three simple arrows to indicate the use of glucose and oxygen to convert ADP to ATP.  Guided through a series of questions and answers, students collectively explained that the heart must pump blood through arteries and veins to deliver oxygen and glucose and fat needed to generate ATP, as well as to remove carbon dioxide and other wastes.  Using the illustration of the human circulatory system, I then carefully explained the human circulatory system is a closed system comprised of the blood (the medium carrying oxygen, nutrients, CO2 and other wastes), the heart (the pump), and the arterial and venous vessels (the conduits in which blood flows from the heart to the tissues where oxygen and nutrients are delivered and CO2 and other wastes are removed).  If adequate pressure is sustained, blood continues to flow through veins back through the heart and to the lungs to unload CO2 and reoxygenate blood and then back to the heart to make another round.  I further explained blood pressure must be regulated to ensure blood flow to tissues optimally matches both metabolic need for oxygen and nutrients and production of CO2.  On the board, I then wrote “Blood Pressure (BP)” and stated that because this is a closed circulatory system, blood pressure changes in direct response and proportion to cardiac output or volume of blood pumped out of heart into systemic vessels in one minute, the total volume of blood in the system, and the vascular resistance that opposes flow and will be predominantly dependent vasoconstriction and vasodilation.  I wrote the terms “Cardiac Output (CO), Blood Volume (BV), and Vascular or Total Peripheral Resistance (VPR) one at a time underneath BP, each with an arrow pointing directly to BP.  I stated that any factor that changes cardiac output, blood volume, or vascular resistance can indirectly alter blood pressure.  For example, a change in heart rate can change cardiac output and thus, alter blood pressure.  I then distributed the series of hand drawn diagrams shown below.  As I pass out the sheets and display on slides, I tell them they will be learning about all these various factors and mechanisms and will be able to recreate the network and use it as a study aid.

To get students started, I handed out the list of cardiovascular terms, hormones, equations, etc. and several small pieces of paper, e.g., 2”x2” plain paper squares, to each student.  [I found free clean scratch paper in various colors in the computer lab and copy room recycling bins.]  Students can also take their trusty 3”x5” cards and cut each in half or even quarters or use standard-size Post-It® notes.  I explained that as I introduce a term or mechanism they will write the term or conventional abbreviation on one side of the paper and the definition and pertinent information on the other in pencil for easier editing.  [I emphasized the importance of using conventional abbreviations.]  For example, Blood Pressure would be written on one side of the paper and ‘pressure exerted against vessel wall’ on other, along with ‘mm Hg’, and later the equation for mean arterial pressure (MAP) can be added.  I had my own set of terms written on Post-It® notes and arranged BP, CO, BV, VPR and other terms on a white board so they could see the mapping of functional relationships take shape.  As new concepts were taught and learned, e.g., CO = Stroke Volume (SV) x Heart Rate (HR), the respective terms were added to the concept map to reflect the physiological relationships between and among the new mechanism to the existing mechanisms or phenomena already in the concept map.  In that case, on the back of the CO paper or card one might write “volume of blood ejected from ventricle in one minute into aorta”, “CO = HR x SV“, “If HR is too fast, CO will decrease!”, “Right CO must equal Left CO!”  I explained students can lay out their terms on a table, floor, their bed, etc.  I reminded students how important it was to say the terms out loud as they wrote the terms in their best penmanship.  This helps students slow down and deliberately think about what they are writing and refer to their lecture notes or textbook (be it an actual book or e-book).  I had given students copies of the complete concept map of all terms but did not dictate exactly what they should write on the back of the cards.  The small size of the paper or card, almost forces students to annotate explanations; this helped them better encapsulate their ideas.  I was open to checking their annotation and reflecting back to students the apparent meaning of their word choice.  While studying alone or with study partners, students were encouraged to audibly define terms and relationships among mechanisms as they arranged their maps in the correct configuration.  They were encouraged to ‘shuffle the deck’ and recreate subsections of the network to understand mechanistic connections at different points in the network.  Because I had given them the diagrams or concept maps for cardiac output, blood volume, and vascular resistance, students were able to check their work and conduct formative assessments alone or in groups in an accurate and supportive manner.

Students expressed that manually arranging components allowed them to literally see functional and consequential relationships among different mechanisms.  The activity complemented and re-enforced quizzes and formative assessments already in use.  It’s not a perfect tool and certainly has room for improvement.  There are quite a few pieces of paper, but students found ways to keep the pieces together, e.g., binder clips, Zip-lock bags, rubber bands.  Nonetheless, it is simple, portable, and expandable concept map students can use to learn cardiovascular physiology and represents a tool that can be applied to teach and learn other regulatory networks, such as those of the digestion-reabsorption-secretion in the GI tract and calcium homeostasis.

  1. Wiggers C. Circulation in Health and Disease. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger, 1915.
  2. http://learnthroughexperience.org/blog/power-of-context-learning-through-senses/
Alice Villalobos, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Medical Education at the Texas Tech Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas.  She received her B.S.in biology from Loyola Marymount University and her Ph.D. in comparative physiology from the University of Arizona-College of Medicine.  Her research interests are the comparative aspects of the physiology and stress biology of organic solute transport by choroid plexus.  She has taught undergraduate and graduate courses in integrative systems physiology, nutrition and toxicology.  However, her most enjoyable teaching experience has been teaching first-graders about the heart and lungs!  Her educational interests focus on tools to enhance learning of challenging concepts in physiology for students at all levels.  She has been actively involved in social and educational programs to recruit and retain first-generation college students and underrepresented minorities in STEM.

 

March 9th, 2021
Person First Teaching in Physiology

Many of us are continuously trying to be as inclusive in our teaching as possible. One early concept I learned in this effort was to use person-first language, where one “puts the person before the disability, and describes what a person has, not who a person is”. This small change can lead to a more comfortable and inclusive classroom and also model behavior that future health professionals (the majority of my students) will need to employ in their careers.

 

Yet, there’s another ‘person first’ approach that I take in my classes and interactions with students that I think also builds inclusivity and perhaps more importantly, trust and understanding between my students and me. I try to be a person first, and a professor second. I try to see my students as people first, and students second. In the past year, during the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic, this has been especially important as we all attempt to deal with additional life stresses, course modalities, and uncertainties.

 

As a person, the past year has not only been marked by the pandemic, but rather a significant medical challenge. In March 2020, amidst emergency planning to send students home permanently for the semester and move to remote teaching, I was diagnosed with Stage IV metastatic breast cancer. In 2014, in my second year as a faculty member, I had gone through chemo, surgery, radiation, and continued therapy for what was at that time stage III breast cancer. Remission lasted nearly five years. Since the original diagnosis, while I never felt like cancer defined me, it became an essential part of me, as a person, and as a professor.

 

The hormonal treatment regimen I followed from 2015-2019 provided a real-life example of many of the principles of the endocrine system that I taught my mid-level Human Physiology students. Along with an example of my grandmother stubbornly tapering off high-dose IV steroids after a kidney infection, I began to teach “my story” as our application of the endocrine system chapter in my flipped-classroom course.

 

I present a case study on “Patient X”, only revealing that I am in fact patient X after the relevant physiology is covered. As I explain to students, it’s not just an example to allow them to apply what they are learning to a clinical situation. Rather, it’s my attempt to demonstrate that the knowledge they are (hopefully) gaining, the vocabulary and critical thinking skills are not meant to just serve their future professional goals, but their personal life as well. They may be the one in the future helping a loved one navigate a challenging health situation. I’ve been forever grateful for my own physiological knowledge helping me to deal with my diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

 

This year, with the progression of my disease, the lesson takes a slightly different tone (although better this semester since my current infusion treatment has led to some regression of lung metastases). I also take the time to have a “soapbox moment” (and yes, I call it that…) to also inform students about metastatic breast cancer in general, some statistics, and the importance of early detection. I remind the students about the importance of drug discovery and clinical trials in changing people’s lives, mine included.

 

This year, in anticipation of writing this post, as part of the pre- and post- reflection students complete about “why is important to understand hormones?” I asked them for feedback on my person-first approach of sharing my own story. In addition to many students reflecting that they did in fact “see the bigger picture” of why we learn basic physiology, many provided comments that support my approach. A selection of some of their responses:

 

I really liked that you incorporated your own personal story into class because it made me feel like I genuinely knew you better as a person rather than just my professor – students really don’t get to see their teacher’s lives outside of class, but I think it’s really special when they do and when they are vulnerable with us and can share things like you did. It also gave us some insight as to why you do the things you do and why you are interested in what you teach. Thank you for sharing!”

You sharing your story today and being vulnerable with us gave real-life application to what we are learning. We are able to now better understand that learning this information is not just about memorizing facts to get a good grade. Rather, it shows us the importance of what we are studying and how we can use it to help others throughout our lifetime. So, thank you very much for sharing and inspiring other teachers to share as well.”

I am really happy that you shared your personal story. I think case studies are a great way to learn in general, but actually knowing the person in the case makes is so much more powerful. I will never forget today’s class and I genuinely have a much better understanding and appreciation for the material that we covered.”

Obviously, not everyone has their own story to tell, but my guess is that we all have ways that we can be vulnerable and connect the material to our own lives, encouraging our students to do the same. Storytelling and narrative medicine have received recent attention as ways to promote empathy and build trust. Why not then share our own stories? Why not put the person first in our teaching?

To summarize, I am a person with cancer. I am a person who teaches physiology. I am a person who utilizes my cancer to help me teach physiology.


Anne Crecelius 
(@DaytonDrC) is an Associate Professor in the Department of Health and Sport Science at the University of Dayton..  She teaches Human Physiology, Introduction to Health Professions, and Research in Sport and Health Science. She returned to her undergraduate alma mater to join the faculty after completing her M.S. and Ph.D. studying Cardiovascular Physiology at Colorado State University.  Her research interest is in the integrative control of muscle blood flow.  She is a member of the American Physiological Society (APS) and on the leadership team for the Physiology Majors Interest Group (P-MIG).
February 17th, 2021
Flipped Teaching to Remote Flipped Teaching

Although flipped teaching design has been around for years, the term ‘flipped teaching’ was only coined slightly over a decade ago, mainly when Salman Khan used this teaching method to his cousins over the internet that subsequently gained attention. Advancements in educational technology must be given credit for the origin of this new term as well.

 

About a decade ago, I started using flipped teaching, but the terms ‘synchronous’ and ‘asynchronous’ were not associated with it at that time. About four years ago, in one of the conferences, I was introduced to synchronous online teaching for the first time. Since I also teach an online class without flipped instruction, I tried to modify my asynchronous online course to a synchronous one but had difficulty doing so. The students in my online class worked full time, and there was not a single common time convenient for the entire class.

 

My flipped teaching design has been steadily evolving since I first started using it (Figure 1). Briefly, there are two significant components of this teaching method- the pre-class and the in-class. The flipped teaching’s pre-class portion is where students first explore new course content in their personal space and time. In-class time is deliberately designed around student engagement and inquiry, allowing students to apply and elaborate on course concepts (DeLozier & Rhodes, 2017; Jensen, Kummer, & Godoy, 2015). In-class sessions typically entail collaborative active learning strategies. My fascination for the retrieval exercise in facilitating learning (Dobson, Linderholm, & Stroud, 2019) led to its blending in conjunction with flipped teaching (Figure 1). There are challenges with this contemporary teaching method. One of them is student buy-in. Yet another one is student motivation. However, I have developed strategies that have helped overcome these challenges.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1. Flipped Teaching to Remote Flipped Teaching

COVID-19 was the unexpected challenge every instructor had to face in 2020. Since COVID 19, the original flipped teaching design had to be revised to shift to remote teaching. One advantage for those using flipped teaching was the use of the pre-class portion that was already available. The term ‘pre-class’ suddenly became synonymous with the ‘asynchronous’ part of online instruction. The in-class activities would now be referred to as the ‘synchronous’ sessions. Although some modifications had to be made for the in-class or synchronous portion of the flipped teaching, such as the Zoom’s breakout rooms for group work and a clicker activity for the in-class individual assessments, the in-class content that was already prepared was reusable. Thus, evolved a new form of flipped teaching called remote flipped teaching (Figure 1). It must be noted that flipped teaching must have some form of synchronous time with the students. Otherwise, it would simply be referred to as an online course. The remote flipped classroom is where students engage with course content in an online platform prior to attending a virtual face-to-face course session. Pairing flipped classroom pedagogy, in which students engage with content independently before a synchronous class, with online learning objects intentionally designed to promote independent learning, helps build a strong foundation (Humrickhouse, 2021).

References

DeLozier, S. J., & Rhodes, M. G. (2017). Flipped classrooms: a review of key ideas and recommendations for practice. Educational Psychology Review29(1), 141-151.

Dobson, J. L., Linderholm, T., & Stroud, L. (2019). Retrieval practice and judgements of learning enhance transfer of physiology information. Advances in Health Sciences Education24(3), 525-537.


Humrickhouse, E. (2021). Flipped classroom pedagogy in an online learning environment: A self-regulated introduction to information literacy threshold concepts. The Journal of Academic Librarianship47(2), 102327.

Jensen, J. L., Kummer, T. A., & Godoy, P. D. D. M. (2015). Improvements from a flipped classroom may simply be the fruits of active learning. CBE—Life Sciences Education14(1), ar5.

Dr. Chaya Gopalan received her bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Bangalore University, India, and Ph.D. from the University of Glasgow, Scotland. Dr. Gopalan wanted to follow her passion for teaching. She started as an adjunct faculty position at Maryville University in St. Louis, which led to tenure-track positions at St. Louis Community College and St. Louis College of Pharmacy, and now at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville (SIUE). She has been teaching anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology at graduate and undergraduate levels for health professional programs. Dr. Gopalan has been practicing evidence-based teaching using team-based learning, case-based learning, and flipped classroom methods. Besides her passion for teaching, Dr. Gopalan has kept up with lab research in neuroendocrine physiology. She is currently working on two research projects: gonadal steroid hormones in the sexual dimorphism of the brain and the other study on obesity, intermittent fasting, and physical and mental exhaustion.

 

Dr. Gopalan has received many teaching awards, including the Arthur C. Guyton Educator of the Year award from the American Physiological Society (APS), the Outstanding Two-Year College Teaching award by the National Association of Biology Teachers, and the Excellence in Undergraduate Education award by SIUE. She has also received several grants, including an NSF-IUSE, an NSF-STEM Talent Expansion Program, and the APS Teaching Career Enhancement awards.

 

Besides teaching and research, Dr. Gopalan enjoys mentoring not only her students but also her peers. She regularly conducts workshops and participates in panel discussions related to higher education. Dr. Gopalan is very active in the teaching section of the APS and has served on many committees. She has published numerous manuscripts and case studies and contributed several textbook chapters and question banks for textbooks and board exams.
 

January 11th, 2021
What do I really want my students to learn about animal physiology?

Each spring semester my colleague and I teach an undergraduate course in animal physiology that emphasizes primary literature and incorporates multiple evidence-based teaching strategies. Using an integrative and comparative approach, students investigate strategies that vertebrate animals use to meet their energy needs, take up and transport oxygen, and maintain hydration and salt balance, with a special emphasis on how animals have adapted to extreme environments. Our course incorporates a flipped teaching (FT) format (2, 4), where students are assigned readings from the textbook and articles from the primary literature outside of class and class time is spent discussing the material and applying that information to explore physiological mechanisms. Instead of lecturing, class time is focused on interactive learning through group work – teamwork is emphasized throughout the course, with students working in groups both inside and outside of class.  Our course learning goals are:

 

1.       Acquire a fundamental knowledge of “how animals work”

2.       Recognize how prior and new knowledge relate to current/future work

3.       Appreciate the importance of animal physiology

4.       Understand how to collect, integrate, and communicate information

5.      Exercise responsibility and teamwork.

 

When Rice University moved all classes online due to the COVID pandemic in spring 2020, we were at mid-semester. So like most other educators around the United States, we moved our class to Zoom. The transition from face-to-face to online instruction went fairly smoothly. Although we had only two weeks to make this shift, we did not have to frantically record lectures since our class meetings were discussion based. Additionally, students had been working in teams since the beginning of the semester so we had an established community in our classroom. Students still attended class online and were engaged for the most part. That being said, we observed that students did not turn on their cameras unless we asked them to and definitely seemed more hesitant to answer and ask questions in Zoom. Student engagement and participation increased dramatically when we put students in small groups in breakout rooms; here they interacted as a team, just like they did at round tables in the classroom pre-COVID. Student feedback at the end of the semester revealed that most of them felt like class didn’t change that much after moving online – however, they did miss the in-person interactions with us and their classmates, and some activities did not translate well to an online format; they truly appreciated our efforts to adapt our teaching and made some great suggestions for how we could improve the course in the future for online and/or face-to-face teaching.

 

After the semester ended, I finally had some time to reflect upon my teaching pre-COVID and during the pandemic. Over the summer, I spent many hours thinking about the course structure and what we would revise for our next offering of the course. As the COVID pandemic continued to rage throughout the fall semester, my colleague and I decided that we would teach our animal physiology course fully online for the spring 2021 semester. And we just learned that due to a spike in COVID cases after Christmas in the Houston area, classes at Rice will be fully remote at least until mid-February. During the pandemic last spring, throughout the summer and fall, and now with classes starting in just two weeks, one key question has guided me as I work on this course: “What do I really want my students to learn about animal physiology?”

How were we assessing student learning?

During the spring 2020 semester, student learning was assessed in multiple ways including individual exams, group exams, a semester long team project, homework, reading quizzes, reflections, etc. Although these mostly formative assessments and the team project require a great deal of effort and time from the students, exams contributed to 70% of the total grade for the course; the team project accounted for 20% of the grade, and all other assignments (e.g., homework, quizzes, reflections) were worth just 10% of the grade. Although there were short “mini exams” every other week, some students still became stressed and anxious when taking the exams, even though they demonstrated an understanding of course material in class discussions and on homework assignments. Once the pandemic forced us to remote instruction, we did modify the exam format to give them more time to take the exam online than they would have had in the classroom; they had a flexible window so they could choose what time/day to take the exam; and the final exam was “open resources.” And we dropped a third exam based on a research article since we lost about two weeks of instruction. We were not overly concerned about cheating since all of our exam questions are short answer format and typically require application and/or synthesis of foundational knowledge to answer the questions (i.e., you can’t just Google the answer).

Overall, student performance on the exams did not change much from pre-COVID to during the pandemic. Still, this weighting of assignments seemed imbalanced to me, with too much emphasis on student performance on exams. I started thinking about how I could shift the weighting of assignments to better reflect student achievement of learning goals. For example, the semester long team project, where students create a fictional animal (1) and showcase their animal during the last week of classes, requires students to understand integration of body systems as well as explain how the systems work together (or don’t) and recognize tradeoffs and physiological constraints. Shouldn’t this creative outlet that requires the highest level of Bloom’s taxonomy count as much towards their course grade as exams? What about all of the other work they do inside and outside of class?

 How did I intentionally redesign my course with strategies to promote student success?

Never having taught a course online before the spring 2020 semester and not being sure how to help students cope with additional stresses caused by the pandemic, I attended or participated in numerous webinars, such as the National Institute on Scientific Teaching SI Happy Hours (https://www.nisthub.org), the APS Institute on Teaching and Learning Virtual Week (https://www.physiology.org/detail/event/2020/06/22/default-calendar/institute-on-teaching-and-learning?SSO=Y), and the APS Webinar Series – Physiology Educators Community of Practice (https://www.physiology.org/detail/event/2020/07/23/default-calendar/physiology-educators-community-of-practice-webinar-series?SSO=Y). Support and resources from the Rice Center for Teaching Excellence (https://cte.rice.edu/preparing-for-spring-2021#resources) have been invaluable as I redesign my course.

In an article submitted to Inside Higher Ed about helping students in times of trauma (3), Mays Imad said,

As teachers, we don’t simply impart information. We need to cultivate spaces where students are empowered co-create meaning, purpose and knowledge — what I have termed a “learning sanctuary.” In such a sanctuary, the path to learning is cloaked with radical hospitality and paved with hope and moral imagination. And it is our connections, the community of the classroom and our sense of purpose that will illuminate that path.”

How can I create a “learning sanctuary” in my classroom environment? What approaches can I take to minimize stress and maximize engagement for students? Here are some strategies I’ve adopted for this upcoming semester to promote student success as we teach our animal physiology course fully online:

  • Shift weighting for assignment categories to an even distribution – exams are worth only 25%!
  • Further modify the exam format to decrease student anxiety and likelihood of cheating – all exams are open resources!
  • Incorporate new assignments to assess student learning – students write a mini review paper about their favorite vertebrate animal.

 How will I know if my students learned animal physiology?

Our overall course goal is “We aim to have you learn mechanisms by which animals solve day to day problems of staying alive; learn skills, strategies, and ways of thinking that are particularly relevant to the study of physiology; and perhaps most important of all, enjoy learning the marvelous phenomena of the animal world.” Throughout the course we strive to help our students learn, not just memorize a bunch of facts that they will forget as soon as they take an exam. In their final reflection about the course, we ask these questions:

1.       What impact has something you learned had on your own perceptions?

2.       What long-term implications did a specific discovery/piece of information have on you/on society?”

3.       What is one or more specific thing that you learned about animals this semester that you will never forget?

I love reading their reflections where they share what they learned in our course. Here are a few of my favorites from the spring 2020 semester:

  •        …This class totally changed my mindset. I’m glad it was animal examples, with maybe a handful of human connections, rather than human examples with animal connections. I think in my past reflections, I have said repeatedly my favorite part was the animal examples, whether it’s a specific example or the comparative examples. I think my very favorite animal we “did” this semester were the diving seals – every kid who has ever been on swim team always had those competitions to see who could hold their breath the longest and the seals were an interesting callback to that. But even before that, I think I learned new information about how animals lived and worked each and every week of this class. Just ask my friends: every week, I’d be sharing some interesting fact from “animal class,” like the reindeer eyes… I now have learned a lot more about animals and have a greater appreciation for them as they compete to survive in their own circumstances. I can safely say I haven’t been this passionate about animals since I was little, going through my “animals” phase, and am hoping to keep this excitement and stay a lifelong learner about different animals and how special they are!
  •         …My perceptions of the importance and complexity of different organisms in physiology has been strongly shifted by this class. I’ve gained an appreciation of different animal systems as they function in different kinds of vertebrates. While I previously had a more human-centric view of physiology from taking the MCAT, I am glad I was able to broaden my perspective to learn more about the different tricks and systems animals employ to suit themselves to their environments…
  •       …It was cool to see the adaptions that different species of animals have to cope in their environment. Some of them seemed so wild, like being able to change how blood flows through your heart, or lungs collapsing in diving mammals. Even mammalian life on our own planet can seem so alien at times. Most of us are familiar with how the human body works, at least in broad strokes, but there are so many other ways to live…
  •       …when you understand how an animal works. When you understand why they do what they do and why they look the way they look, a lot of fear and misunderstanding melts away. It not only cultivates a sense of amazement but also one of understanding and respect.

Even in the midst of a pandemic, I feel confident that my students not only learned physiology but also gained an appreciation for the importance of studying animal physiology. After taking this course, most if not all of them would agree with me that “Animals are Amazing!” And that is what I really want my students to learn about animal physiology.

NOTE: All protocols were approved by the Institutional Review Board of Rice University (Protocol FY2017-294).

References

1.       Blatch S, Cliff W, Beason-Abmayr B, Halpin P. The Fictional Animal Project: A Tool for Helping Students Integrate Body Systems. Adv Physiol Educ 41: 239-243m 2017; doi: 10.1152/advan.00159.2016.

2.       Gopalan C. Effect of flipped teaching on student performance and perceptions in an Introductory Physiology course. Adv Physiol Educ 43: 28–33, 2019; doi:10.1152/advan.00051.2018.

3.       Imad M. Seven recommendations for helping students thrive in times of trauma. INSIDE HIGHER ED, June 3, 2020; https://www.insidehighered.com/advice/2020/06/03/seven-recommendations-helping-students-thrive-times-trauma.

4.       McLean S, Attardi SM, Faden L, Goldszmidt M. Flipped classrooms and student learning: not just surface gains. Adv Physiol Educ 40, 47-55, 2016; doi:10.1152/advan.00098.2015.

Beth Beason-Abmayr, PhD, is a teaching professor of biosciences at Rice University in Houston, TX, and a faculty fellow of the Rice Center for Teaching Excellence. She has developed multiple course-based undergraduate research experiences and a student-centered integrative animal physiology course. Beason-Abmayr is a longtime judge for the International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition and a member of the iGEM Executive Judging Committee. She is a past recipient of the George R. Brown Award for Superior Teaching and the Teaching Award for Excellence in Inquiry-Based Learning at Rice and has published in Advances in Physiology Education and the Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education. A National Academies Education Mentor in the Life Sciences, Beason-Abmayr is chair of the Organizing Committee of the American Physiological Society’s 2022 Institute of Teaching and Learning and is an associate editor for Advances in Physiology Education. She earned her PhD in physiology and biophysics at The University of Alabama at Birmingham.

 

 

 

 

December 23rd, 2020
Motivating students to make the most of group projects

Implementation of group projects in class represents an important pedagogical strategy to engage students in active learning. Specifically, it may promote collaborative learning, problem-based learning, evidence-based learning, team-based learning, and peer instruction. Students may benefit from group projects in different ways, including but not limited to: (1) practicing teamwork skills (e.g., communication, collaboration, interdependence, and accountability), and (2) building problem-solving skills (e.g., reasoning, critical-thinking, knowledge applying, trouble shooting, and concept constructing). As such, implementation of group projects has been increasingly observed in higher education across disciplines including nutritional and metabolic physiology [1-4].

 

However, not all students favor group projects. The common complaints may arise from time commitments and unequal contributions [2]. Some students may prefer to work alone on assignments in which they can easily take control of the pace and spend less time to earn high scores. This view is true in some sense, but students will miss the benefits of collaborative learning, team-based learning, and peer instruction. In general, it takes more time to accomplish a project as a group than as an individual because time is needed to build an effective team. However, the effects or benefits of group projects on student learning are profound, as mentioned above. To be society or career ready, for instance, students are not evaluated by scores alone but also by soft skills such as teamwork, accountability, adaptability, flexibility, and resilience. In terms of contributions, some students may feel short of chances to express themselves because of dominating group members, while others may complain about free riders who take less responsibility in group projects but earn the same scores [2]. The paradoxes can be addressed by motivating students to actively participate in and make the most of group projects.

 

First, let students enjoy the freedom to select topics of interests for their group projects. Interest can significantly motivate students to make efforts exploring evidence for answers. Nevertheless, the project topics proposed by students are by no means random; instead, the themes should fit in with the course content and learning objectives. In order for a project to overarch the interests of a group of students, the instructor may facilitate setting up the groups based on student interests. In addition, the instructor’s guidance is critical for the project initiation, where adjustments are necessary to customize the project question or theme such that it takes into account every member’s interests and learning objectives.

 

Secondly, balance group size to fulfill key roles. Group size affects group dynamics and the performance. Group oversizing increases the difficulty of engaging each member in the discussion or activities within limited time, which results in free riding and unequal contributions. A group size of 3-5 students is considered reasonable; a group size of 2 students may still work, but it lacks the typical group dynamics of assigning and rotating roles. In a 5-student group, the roles can be assigned as a facilitator (to moderate group discussion), a challenger (to raise counter-arguments and alternative explanations), a recorder (to take notes of group discussion), a reporter (to summarize and report the outcome of group discussion), and a timekeeper (to keep the group on track of time and deadlines). For a smaller group, the facilitator may take an additional role of “timekeeper”, and the challenger or recorder may take an additional role of “reporter”. More importantly, role rotation motivates students to play different roles in a group, which can prevent students from dominating in a group discussion or project and eliminate free riding. Role rotation motivates students to put themselves in others’ shoes, which promotes mutual understanding and trust that foster stronger teamwork. To this end, the instructor may direct students to divide a group project into sub-sections such that the key roles can be played by each member of the group via role rotation.

 

Third, have individual contributions weighed for group project grading. It is common that all members earn the same score for a group project. However, having individual contributions weighed for group project grading will motivate students to maximize their talents and potential in solving problems and executing the project. Practically, let students acknowledge or sign their contributions when they submit the assignment, and accordingly, grading rubrics can be designed such that both individual and collective merits of a group assignment are weighted. For instance, an oral presentation can be easily assessed by the relevance, depth, innovation, readiness, and communication skills for each individual portion, and by the overall hypothesis, rationale, logical flow, presentation transitions, and convincingness for the collective merits. This practice may increase the workload on the instructor and teaching assistants, but it significantly boosts the motivation of students to do the best they can for a group project.

 

Lastly, effectively apply anonymous peer evaluation. Group projects demand a variety of outside class efforts and activities, and a generic evaluation or rating of peer contributions would not suffice. Instead, the anonymous peer rating should be specified in detail such as the responsiveness, promptness, the amount of literature contributed, and the performance in discussion, presenting and challenging different viewpoints, and setting and achieving goals. The itemized rating or guide can keep the peer evaluators on track and evaluation straightforward. In addition, it is critical to provide timely evaluation so that students know how they are doing and what to improve, and so they may take prompt actions to improve later group work. If a group project consists of multiple subsections, an anonymous peer evaluation can be installed for each subsection with the average being taken as the final rating. If there is no subsection in a group project, an anonymous peer evaluation can be installed in halfway and at the conclusion of the project, with the average being taken as the final rating. Timely and multiple peer evaluations motivate students to reflect and find effective ways to work together as a group. By contrast, using a single peer evaluation for the group project only tells students about their performance but does not produce the motivation or opportunities to identify and fix issues for improvement.

 

In summary, implementation of group projects in class may benefit student learning in many ways [1-4]. Here I described some practical strategies that motivate students to fully participate and make the most of group projects. These practices may also address concerns raised by students and instructors about unequal contributions or free riding [2].

 

References and further reading

[1] Benishek LE and Lazzara EH. Teams in a New Era: Some Considerations and Implications. Front. Psychol. 2019, 10, 1006. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01006

[2] Chang Y, Brickman P. When Group Work Doesn’t Work: Insights from Students. CBE Life Sci Educ. 2018, 17(3), ar42. doi: 10.1187/cbe.17-09-0199.

[3] Rathner JA, Byrne G. The use of team-based, guided inquiry learning to overcome educational disadvantages in learning human physiology: a structural equation model. Adv Physiol Educ. 2014, 38(3), 221-8. doi: 10.1152/advan.00131.2013.

[4] Schmutz JB, Meier LL, Manser T. How effective is teamwork really? The relationship between teamwork and performance in healthcare teams: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2019, 9, e028280. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028280

Dr. Zhiyong Cheng received his PhD in Analytical Biochemistry from Peking University, after which he conducted postdoctoral research at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) and Harvard Medical School. Dr. Cheng is now an Assistant Professor of Nutritional Science at the University of Florida. He has taught several undergraduate- and graduate-level courses (lectures and lab) in human nutrition and metabolism (including metabolic physiology). As the principal investigator in a research lab studying metabolic diseases (obesity and type 2 diabetes), Dr. Cheng has been actively developing and implementing new pedagogical approaches to build students’ critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
December 3rd, 2020
SEND YOUR EDUCATIONAL SCHOLARSHIP TO ADVANCES IN PHYSIOLOGY EDUCATION!

The Editors of Advances in Physiology Education have recently changed Advances article types to clarify the broadness of articles in physiology and life science education which Advances would like to publish.   Details of the article types are found at https://journals.physiology.org/advances/article-typesAdvances articles do not have page charges and the journal is available online from publication.  While the kinds of articles are not new, the new titles of the article types broaden the definitions of how educators can get credit for scholarship for many of the responsibilities that they have.  Article types include:

  • Education Research – hypothesis and data driven research papers with succinct reviews of background literature
  • Teaching Innovations – educational innovations to improve teaching and learning that may not have rigorous assessment or evaluation
  • Illuminations – good ideas conceived and tested in the classroom that may or may not have been successful
  • Curriculum Development and Assessment – design and implementation of curricula at any level in any program with some references to its success
  • Training and Mentoring – descriptions of projects for training and mentoring of students or other faculty with some evaluation of learning outcomes
  • Sourcebook of Laboratory Activities in Physiology – detailed descriptions of activities and experiments for student laboratory settings with class testing (specific template)
  • Historical Perspectives – scholarly essays about the history of physiology or particular physiologists
  • Personal Views – essays that present philosophical perspectives on physiology education which may be provocative, pointed, candid, or reflective
  • Staying Current – short reviews intended to help educators stay current with recent advances or new methods in physiology and learning science in order to better teach a concept
  • Editorials related to the journal’s mission, Mini-Reviews as summaries of important new and emerging fields (often from presentations), Meeting Reports of an international or national meeting hosted by an academic institution or professional society (specific template), and Letters to the Editor (reaction to previously published work in Advances).

All types of papers are peer-reviewed except for Letters to the Editor.  The Editors of Advances encourage you to write up some of these scholarly activities and submit them to the journal.  Articles do not need to specifically be about physiology education.  For more information, contact Barb Goodman at Barb.Goodman@usd.edu.

Barbara E. Goodman, Ph.D., Professor of Physiology, Sanford School of Medicine of the University of South Dakota, Editor-in-Chief, Advances in Physiology Education.

Barb received her Ph.D. in Physiology from the University of Minnesota and is currently a Professor in the Basic Biomedical Sciences Department of the Sanford School of Medicine at the University of South Dakota. Her research focuses on improving student learning through innovative and active pedagogy.