Monthly Archives: July 2019

What is the Physiology-Majors Interest Group (P-MIG)? Who are we?

Lisa Carney Anderson, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

Unlike other disciplines who have a national society that manages undergraduate curriculum guidelines, Bachelor’s degree programs in Physiology, which largely serve pre-health students, do not.  Therefore, a grassroots consortium of dedicated educators self-organized to support the development of curricular guidelines for physiology and related undergraduate programs worldwide. P-MIG’s mission is to enhance the success of physiology students/majors on a programmatic level.  We are working to achieve this goal by collecting data from physiology faculty, physiology students, advisers and conference attendees and holding conferences for peer BS/BA programs in physiology and related fields. The goals are to share ideas and resources among programs, to develop and share tools for program evaluation, and ultimately to work toward curricular guidelines and support new program development.

Our group started with concerned educators asking about physiology students who were not finding successful careers after graduation.   Beginning in 2012, these individuals started coming together, collecting data about physiology programs and presenting their findings at physiology conferences.  Today we have a website (https://www.physiologymajors.org/), a list-serve of over 218 physiology educators, an NSF grant submitted (Wehrwein, Aquilar-Roca, Crecelius, McFarland, Rogers) and have just held our 3rd annual meeting.

The Integrative Biology and Physiology (IBP) Department at the University of Minnesota hosted the 3rd Annual meeting of the P-MIG from June 18 -20th

The meeting started on Tuesday evening, June 18, 2019 with a poster session on physiology education including topics such as program organization, learning progression of physiology concepts, active learning activities within physiology courses, surveys of physiology curricula, surveys of physiology students and teaching interventions for helping students.

On Wednesday, June 19th, our group spent a full day engaging in presentations and discussions. Dr.  Joseph Metzger, Chair of IBP, and Dr. Lisa Carney Anderson, Director of Education in IBP, welcomed our 51 attendees to campus.  Our conference consisted of representatives of 17 states and 3 countries (USA, Canada and Portugal). 50% were new attendees! The University of Minnesota has a state of the art active learning classroom building which provided an innovative setting for our conference.

Dr. Erica Wehrwein, P-MIG Director, set the scene by presenting the history of P-MIG and gave an overview of the extensive data collection P-MIG members have done. Data collection and analysis is an essential part of guiding the future actions of P-MIG.

Preparing Physiology students for a meaningful career

Dr. Laurence Savett, Author of the Human Side of Medicine, gave a talk entitled Preparing physiology students for a meaningful career: the role of the teacher/adviser.  Dr. Savett pointed to the similarities between the doctor-patient relationship and the teacher-student relationship.  Through stories and his experience, he shared many pearls of wisdom about 1) developing a relationship with advisees, 2) helping advisees see how school/work experiences are transferable to many professions, 3) considering the past experience of the student in tailoring advice, 4) listening without interrupting  the listening, 5) looking at a situation from different perspectives, 6) encouraging advisees to reflect on lessons learned, 7)  recognizing that advisers can learn from their students, 8) helping advisees to open up and finally 9) viewing academic problems as a presenting complaint with differential diagnoses. 

Good advising leads to good outcomes.

Dr. Anne Crecelius & Dr. Patrick Crosswhite led a session on advising.   First, good advising practices are supported by professional organizations such as National Academic Advising Association (NACASA) and National Association of Advisors for the Health Professions (NAANP). Furthermore, useful data can be derived from online application services and web resources such as http://explorehealthcareers.org/.  They also shared the perspective that career advice has to wait if students are experiencing financial and health distress. 

Dr. Crosswhite presented survey data from 31 institutions.  Many advisors are working with a lot of students, sometimes with very little training and experience. Student passivity and scarce resources (time and money) exert challenges to advising.  P-MIG could have an important role in addressing advising gaps and barriers.

After the advising session, conference participants divided into discussion groups to discuss advising programs of different sizes and types of advising offices (centralized, de-centralized, informal).  The analysis of the discussions are ongoing.

Mindfulness and Physiology

Dr. Aviad Haramati, Professor in Integrative Physiology and Director of the Center for Innovation and Leadership in Education (CENTILE; https://centile.georgetown.edu/) gave an inspiring talk entitled Managing stress in the curriculum and the culture: the unique opportunity for physiologists.  He presented the metaphor of a fish tank filled with beautiful tropical fish.  He asked the group to imagine that half the fish were sick.  Would we conclude there is something intrinsically wrong with the fish or would we conclude there is something extrinsically wrong with their environment?  We would think something is wrong with the tank!  Why, then, do we not recognize that the stress of our students is due to their environment rather than the students themselves?

Physiologists are equipped to support the biological basis of mindfulness and stress management, according to Dr. Haramati.  Stress activates the hypothalamic – pituitary – adrenal axis.  With acute stress, the body returns to baseline.  With chronic stress or multiple stressful events in succession, cortisol levels remain elevated and then the individual is less able to mount a response over time.  Mindfulness training is essential for enabling individuals to return to baseline and developing resilience in the face of stress.  As faculty, we must address mindfulness in the curriculum and model good stress management for the sake of our work and the sake of our students.

Professional Skills Development is as important as Teaching Physiology Content

The professional skills working group has been developing and revising a list of skills that our physiology graduates should hone during their undergraduate programs.  From their work, a baccalaureate prepared physiology major should be able to think critically, communicate effectively, behave in a socially responsible manner and demonstrate laboratory proficiency.  Dr. Michelle French, Dr. Julia Choate and Dr. Randy Bryner crafted an inventory with several examples/descriptors of each main category.  The attendees broke into small groups for discussion of the skills listed in the inventory.

Themes from the discussion centered on the following:

  • Mastery versus familiarity.  There are some skills that we may expect our students to master and other skills we would expect our students to be familiar with.  Mastery versus familiarity might vary from program to program depending on the program goals and department facilities.  PMIG might suggest an inventory of skills and departments could choose which are relevant, doable and measurable for their program.
  • What kinds of lab skills?  Hands on data collection experience is important so that students can understand the essentials of keeping a lab notebook, documenting their work, measurement and error, and ethical interpretation of data. Is there a set of lab skills our students need so they can be employed by academic or industry labs?
  • Reading and analysis of the primary literature.  Should undergraduates be familiar with reading primary literature whereas mastery would come in graduate school?  What are ways we can hold our students accountable when we assign primary literature readings?
  • Assessment.  We can directly measure student’s ability to write and evaluating data by assigning projects in which they perform these skills. There are two aspects of assessment: how students are performing in the classroom and the success of the program in teaching professional skills.  There are validated tools that measure some of the “soft skills” such as empathy, teamwork, and self-efficacy.

Attendees provided written feedback on the paper copies of skill inventories and the professional skill group will revise the inventory based on the feedback.  P-MIG will invite feedback from recent graduates and disseminate the results in journals, faculty meetings and future conference presentations.

The Future of Physiology Panel Discussion

Dr. Luis Rodrigues, Professor and Chair of Human Physiology and Pathophysiology at Universidade Lusófona, led a panel discussion with about 20 of the conference attendees (Chairs, researchers, consultants and educators) regarding the future of physiology.  Dr. Rodrigues is gathering data for a global strategic plan for the discovery and dissemination of physiology knowledge.  A list of panel questions can be found on the P-MIG meeting site (https://www.physiologymajors.org/2019-info). We look forward to reports of his research at future P-MIG meetings.

What are the Core Concepts, how should we use and assess them?

Dr. Claudia Stanescu presented the history of the Core Concepts of Physiology. Physiology core concepts were identified from surveys of physiology faculty at 2-year colleges, 4-year colleges & universities and medical or other professional schools.  The development and unpacking of core concepts has been published in Advances in Physiology Education and captured in The Core Concepts of Physiology: A new paradigm for teaching physiology by Michael, Cliff, McFarland, Modell, and Wright.   The core concepts include: causality, cell-cell communication, cell membrane, cell theory, energy, evolution, flow down gradients, genes to proteins, homeostasis, interdependence, levels of organization, mass balance, physics/chemistry, scientific reasoning and structure/function.  The physiology core concepts are not meant to define the science of physiology, rather they are concepts to guide the 1) teaching of a physiology course, 2) offering of a physiology curriculum or 3) learning by a physiology student.  Data collection from 6 physiology programs thus far suggest that different programs stress different core concepts.  The objective is not for all programs to be the same; the objective is for there to be tools and resources for programs to use core concepts in a way that makes sense to their students.

The Core Concepts working group has been collecting data on the perceptions and use of the core concepts through faculty, program, and student surveys.  This group has developed a framework for using the core concepts in national guidelines.  Dr. Chris Shaltry is developing and testing curricular mapping software to identify gaps and content overlap; Dr. Shaltry presented his work via videoconferencing.  The goal is to better understand our physiology programs and provide evidence that student achievement can be tracked and compared to standards that align with course and programmatic objectives.

Dr. Jennifer Rogers presented data from the student survey.  Several issues from the data stand out.  First, 60% of student respondents have taken course work at community colleges; transferring coursework presents challenges in terms of assessing if and when students have met programmatic outcomes.  Second, student respondents plan to engage in 3 or more experiential learning activities such as job shadowing, volunteering, internships, employment, research, service-based learning or study abroad experiences; P-MIG may be a resource for educating students and programs about experiential learning as students complete their degrees or take gap years.  In this sample, 17 to 29% of the respondents report that they have mastered each of the core concepts, think they are important for their future careers and expect to remember the concepts in 5 years, though there was not a large difference between the core concepts.  Of the 15 core concepts, homeostasis scores the highest, which is consistent with faculty and program rankings which also stress homeostasis. 

The Core Concepts working group is a larger group and discussions after the presentation led to the proposal that the group be split into two subcommittees: one for implementing core concept based teaching in the classroom and a second for curricular mapping and assessment of the core concepts.

University of Minnesota Career Readiness Team: A Model Curriculum for Teaching and Assessing Career Readiness Skills

The College of Liberal Arts (CLA) at the University of Minnesota has 32 departments, 14000 undergraduate students and 69 majors.  CLA invested in a career readiness curriculum because the CLA faculty want desirable graduates who can articulate the value of their degrees.  The focus of the curriculum is to help students translate their educational experience into a language that others, particularly employers, can understand. Development of the curriculum is explained in the U of MN’s curricular guide which can be found at the P-MIG 2019 meeting site. 

Administrators and advisers use various levels of communication to tell students about career readiness and explain the use of an online RATE tool (reflect, articulate, translate, and evaluate).  Students can use online exercises to reflect upon their college experiences, articulate the value of the experience, translate the experience to a professional skill, and evaluate their own progress toward professional skill mastery.  However, students need an incentive to use the tool. Given that faculty have the most contact with students, use of the RATE assessment activities and career readiness outcomes should be embedded in course work. Currently the readiness team is working to help faculty and departments integrate the career readiness tools and assessments into CLA programs.  Faculty can become Career Readiness Teaching Fellows to help other faculty incorporate career readiness into their programs.

WOW what a meeting!

P-MIG brings together many groups and people. This conference allows us to talk about our issues. The grassroots nature of P-MIG speaks to the need and desire for this community.

Questions that often come up:

Are you forming a new society?  No, our group cuts across already established societies such as The American Physiological Society (APS), Association of Chairs of Departments of Physiology (ACDP), Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS), Society for the Advancement of Biology Education Research (SABER), and others.  We are not a competing society; we are simply a grassroots collective of undergraduate physiology educators creating a space for ideas and innovation.

Why don’t you join your meeting with another conference?  We have given this a lot thought and discussion.  Many of our educators may be teaching during the meeting time of other conferences.  Those that attend other conferences may have students with them.  It really feels right to us that we should find a time when our members can attend when their teaching loads are not as high and they are not supervising students.  We are making a concerted effort to provide opportunities for teachers who may have limited travel funds.  If our group reaches a consensus that joining another conference is the right thing to do, then we will join another conference.

How is P-MIG different than HAPS?  One of our conference attendees who is a member of HAPS, said it best. “I love HAPS!  When I want to learn about what is going on in the classroom, I go to HAPS.  When I want to know what is happening on the program level, I look to P-MIG.”

Will you share your data? Yes!  The data we have collected is freely available to anyone who asks by contacting Erica Wehrwein (wehrwei7@msu.edu) or by visiting the website to listen to recordings of the presentations from all 3 conferences.

Come Join Us!

The 4th annual meeting will be held at the University of Oregon in Eugene Oregon, July 11-13, 2020.  Opportunities abound!

Lisa Carney Anderson Biography

Lisa Carney Anderson is an Associate Professor in the Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology at the University of Minnesota. She completed her doctoral training in muscle physiology at the University of Minnesota. She directs the first year medical physiology course. She also teaches nurse anesthesia students, dental students and undergraduates. She is the 2012 recipient of the Didactic Instructor of the Year Award from the American Association of Nurse Anesthesia.  She co-authored a physiology workbook called Cells to Systems: Critical thinking exercises in Physiology, Kendall Hunt Press. Dr. Anderson’s teaching interests include encouraging active learning through retrieval and assessment of student reflection.  She has joined the APS Teaching Section governance as Secretary.

My Summer Reading: Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms 2nd Edition by Stephen D. Brookfield and Stephen Preskill

Jessica L. Fry, PhD
Associate Professor of Biology
Curry College, Milton, MA

Ah Summer – the three months of the year when my To Do list is an aspirational and idealistic mix of research progress, pedagogical reading, curriculum planning, and getting ahead.  Here we are in July, and between hiring, new building construction, uncooperative experiments and familial obligations, I am predictably behind, but my strategic scheduling of this blog as a book review– meaning I have a deadline for both reading and digesting this book handed out at our annual faculty retreat — means that I am guaranteed to get at least one item crossed off my list!

My acceptance of (and planning for) my tendency to procrastinate is an example of the self-awareness Stephen D. Brookfield and Stephen Preskill advocate for teachers in their book “Discussion as a Way of Teaching”.  By planning for the major pitfalls of discussion, as well as the reasons behind why both teachers and students manage discussions poorly, they catalog numerous strategies to increase the odds of realizing the major benefits of discussion in the classroom.  At fifteen years old, this book is hardly dated; some of the discussion formats will be familiar to practitioners of active learning such as snowballing and jigsaw, but the real value in this book for me was the frank discussion of the benefits, drawbacks, and misconceptions about discussion in the classroom that are directly relevant to my current teaching practice.  

My lowest moments as a professor seem to come when my students are more focused on “finding the right answer” than on exploring a topic and fitting it into their conceptual understanding.  Paper discussions can fall flat, with students hastily reciting sentences from the discussion or results sections and any reading questions I may have assigned.  This book firmly makes the case that with proper groundwork and incentive, students can and will develop deliberative conversational skills.  Chapter 3 describes how the principles for discussion can be modeled during lecture, small group work, and formats designed for students to practice the processes of reflection and analysis before engaging in discussions themselves. Chapters 4 and 5 present the nuts and bolts of keeping a discussion going by describing active listening techniques, teacher responses, and group formats that promote rather than suppress discourse, and chapters 9 and 10 illustrate the ways students and teachers talk too much… and too little.  One of the most emphasized concepts in these chapters and threaded throughout the book is allowing silence.  Silence allows for reflection and should not be feared – 26 pages in this book cover silence and importantly, how and why professors and students are compelled to fill it, which can act as a barrier to all students participating in the discussion.   

Preskill and Brookfield emphasize the need for all students to be active listeners and participants in a discussion, even if they never speak a word, because discussion develops the capacity for the clear communication of ideas and meaning.  “Through conversation, students can learn to think and speak metaphorically and to use analogical reasoning…. They can get better at knowing when using specialized terminology is justified and when it is just intellectual posturing” (pg. 32).  What follows is an incredibly powerful discussion on not only honoring and respecting diversity, but a concise well-written explanation of how perceptions of social class and race affect both non-white and non-middle-class students in American college classrooms.  Their explanation of how academia privileges certain patterns of discourse and speech that are not common to all students leading to feelings of impostership should be read by everyone who has ever tone-policed a student or a colleague.  The authors advocate for a democratic approach to speech, allowing students to anonymously report if, for example, another student banging their hand on their desk to emphasize a point seemed too violent, which then allows the group to discuss and if necessary, change the group rules in response to that incident.  The authors note that “A discussion of what constitutes appropriate academic speech is not lightweight or idle.  It cuts to several core issues: how we privilege certain ways of speaking and conveying knowledge and ideas, who has the power to define appropriate forms and patterns of communication, and whose interests these forms and patterns serve” (pg 146).  The idea that academic language can be gatekeeping and alienating to many students is especially important in discussions surrounding retention and persistence in the sciences, where students seeing themselves as scientists is critical (Perez et al. 2014).  Brookfield and Preskill argue that through consistent participation in discussion, students will see themselves as co-creators of knowledge and bring their authentic selves to the community.   

All in all, this book left me inspired and I recommend it for those who imagine the kinds of invigorating discussions we have with colleagues taking place with our students and want to increase the chances it will happen in the classroom.  I want to cut out quotes from my favorite paper’s discussion section and have my students justify or refute the statements made using information from the rest of the paper (pg. 72-73 Getting Discussion Started).  I want my students to reflect on their journey to science and use social media to see themselves reflected in the scientific community (pg. 159-160 Discussing Across Gender Differences), and I want to lay the groundwork for the first discussion I have planned for the class of 2023; Is Water Wet?  All this and the rest of that pesky To Do list with my remaining month of summer. Wish me luck!  

Brookfield, S. D., & Preskill, S. (2005). Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Perez, T., Cromley, J. G., & Kaplan, A. (2014). The role of identity development, values, and costs in college STEM retention. Journal of Educational Psychology. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0034027

Jessica L. Fry Ph.D. is an Associate Professor of Biology at Curry College, a liberal-arts based primarily undergraduate institution in Milton, Massachusetts.  She currently teaches Advanced Physiology, Cell Biology, and Introduction to Molecules and Cells for majors, and How to Get Away with Murder which is a Junior Year Interdisciplinary Course in the General Education Program.  She procrastinates by training her dog, having great discussions with her colleagues, and reading copious amounts of science fiction. 

Synergy – From conference to classroom – The value of attending and doing project-based learning

Monica J. McCullough, PhD
Western Michigan University, Department of Biological Sciences

After attending the 2018 APS – ITL conference for the first time, I walked away with so many actionable ideas to implement in my large classes. One valuable experience was practicing active learning techniques as part of a session. “Doing” helps many to learn much more than “hearing” about best practices. I not only learned much from the active sessions offered at APS-ITL but transferred that experience into my own classroom upon returning.

I decided to try a semester-long project for my Intro to Bio for majors, modifying a project  I learned about from Dr. Beth Beason-Abmayr (http://advan.physiology.org/content/41/2/239) from Rice University.  Dr. Beason-Abmayr introduced ‘The Fictitious Animal Project’ during her session at APS-ITL as one she uses in her Vertebrate Physiology for non-bio majors, averaging around 30 students per semester.  During her session at APS-ITL, we divided into groups, ranging from 2-10, and mimicked the project. I instantly saw the value of this activity and had to add it to my teaching repertoire.  Dr. Beason-Abmayr’s project was to create a fictitious animal that had certain physiological characteristics. Students had categories, such as cardiovascular system, respiratory system, that were randomly selected and answer sets of questions that students would answer about the integration of them, including benefits and trade-offs for the fictitious animal.   They completed scheduled homework sets after topics were discussed in class. The students worked in groups and would present their creations to the class with drawings of their animals. What really piqued my interest was that since students had to create an animal that does not exist in nature, they couldn’t just Google it to create this project, and the potential to bring out their ingenuity to the design. 

Since I was going to teach biological form and function the upcoming Fall, and mind you for the first time, I thought I’d start with this semester-long project for 290 students, which were primarily freshmen. A major component that I wanted to maintain was the student presentations, as this is an important skill for these budding scientists. Obviously, the logistics to maintain this was the first decision, and when factoring in around 75 groups (averaging 4 students per group), I decided that the group presentations would span a total of 4 days at the end of the semester, in a gallery-style presentation. Presenters would line the room with their visual aid and the rest of the class would visit each group with designated rubrics. (Presentation Rubric) Additionally, the individual group members would submit a peer evaluation of their group mates at the end of the day of their presentation. (Group Peer Evaluation). My next modification was to adapt the category options so that the students would create a species that yielded both plant and animal components, as we would be learning about both. There were 5 overall anatomical/physiological categories, including size, circulation, sensory environmental interaction, structure and motility.  These too would be randomized with the use of Google by “rolling the dice” to assign each characteristic. (Project directions)  I continued with Dr. Beason-Abmayr’s project checkpoint of homework sets throughout the semester where students work on a subset of the categories and continue to build their species, as we learn about the topics in class. Each group submitted electronically to Dropbox, and allow time for feedback with rubrics. (HW set 1 rubric example) To end, there was a final wrap-around short answer portion on the final exam where students described each category and how it was incorporated with their own species. This allowed me to check for individual understanding of the project as we all know some group projects allow for ‘moochers’ to do and understand little.   

For me, this project is a keeper. It helped reinforce the essential concepts during the semester and practice soft skills needed to excel in the workforce. It was exciting to see how some students really embraced the project, including creating a costume of their species, 3-D print outs, live plants they’ve modified and sculptures. While difficult, there were also some group conflicts that did occur, yet, these emerging adults were able to work through their differences. A key factor to this was each group developing their own contract at the very beginning of the semester and was open for adjustments for the duration of the semester. (Team Contract)  The big take-away for me is, it is worth the risk to try something new in the classroom, no matter how large or small the size. This project helped student gains with the material, and practice throughout the semester. As an educator, I feel it is pivotal to find ways that help our students feel confident with the material and keep them curious and innovative. Just as at the top presentations at our conference, doing science makes concepts stick much more than just hearing about it.  

Monica J. McCullough, PhD joined as a Faculty Specialist in the Department of Biological Sciences and Western Michigan University in 2016, prior to which she was faculty at Adrian College. She currently teaches large introductory courses, including Anatomy, Physiology and Biological Form and Function. Dr. McCullough received her BS and PhD from Western Michigan University and studied regulation of neurotrophic factors. Dr. McCullough has 4 young children and has found a great interest in doing science demo’s in her elementary children’s’ classrooms.

The Benefits of Learner-Centered Teaching

Jaclyn E. Welles
Cell & Molecular Physiology PhD Candidate
Pennsylvania State University – College of Medicine

In the US, Students at Still Facing Struggles in the STEMs

Literacy in the World Today:
According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), there are approximately 250 million individuals worldwide, who cannot read, write, or do basic math, despite having been in school for a number of years (5, 8). In fact, UNESCO, is calling this unfortunate situation a “Global Learning Crisis” (7). The fact that a significant number of people are lacking in these fundamental life skills regardless of attending school, shows that part of the problem lies within how students are being taught.

Two Main Styles of Teaching – Learner or Teacher-Centered

Learning and Teaching Styles:
It was due to an early exposure to various education systems that I was able to learn of that there were two main styles of teaching – Learner-centered teaching, and Teacher-centered teaching (2). Even more fascinating, with the different styles of teaching, it has become very clear that there are also various types of learners in any given classroom or lecture setting (2, 6, 10). Surprisingly however, despite the fact that many learners had their own learning “modularity” or learning-style, instructors oftentimes taught their students in a fixed-manner, unwilling or unable to adapt or implement changes to their curriculum. In fact, learner-centered teaching models such as the “VARK/VAK – Visual Learners, Auditory Learners and Kinesthetic Learners”, model by Fleming and Mills created in 1992 (6), was primarily established due to the emerging evidence that learners were versatile in nature.

VARK Model of Learners Consists of Four Main Types of Learners: Visual, Auditory, Reading and Writing, and Tactile/Kinesthetic (touch)

What We Can Do to Improve Learning:
The fundamental truth is that when a student is unable to get what they need to learn efficiently, factors such as “learning curves” – which may actually be skewing the evidence that students are struggling to learn the content, need to be implemented (1, 3). Instead of masking student learning difficulties with curves and extra-credit, we can take a few simple steps during lesson-planning, or prior to teaching new content, to gauge what methods will result in the best natural overall retention and comprehension by students (4, 9). Some of methods with evidence include (2, 9):

  • Concept Maps – Students Breakdown the Structure or Organization of a Concept
  • Concept Inventories – Short Answer Questions Specific to a Concept
  • Self-Assessments – Short Answer/Multiple Choice Questions
  • Inquiry-Based Projects – Students Investigate Concept in a Hands-On Project

All in all, by combining both previously established teaching methodologies with some of these newer, simple methods of gauging your students’ baseline knowledge and making the necessary adjustments to teaching methods to fit the needs of a given student population or class, you may find that a significant portion of the difficulties that can occur with students and learning such as – poor comprehension, retention, and engagement, can be eliminated (4, 9) .

Jaclyn Welles is a PhD student in Cellular and Molecular Physiology at the Pennsylvania State University – College of Medicine. She has received many awards and accolades on her work so far promoting outreach in science and education, including the 2019 Student Educator Award from PSCoM.

Her thesis work in the lab of Scot Kimball, focuses on liver physiology and nutrition; mainly how nutrients in our diet, can play a role in influencing mRNA translation in the liver.