Author Archives: Marsha Matyas

Sound Off! What is YOUR PECOP Wish List? 

2014 was a notable year for physiology education:  APS launched both the Institute on Teaching and Learning (ITL) (1) and the Physiology Educators Community of Practice (PECOP) (2, 3, 4, 5). Since then, the ITL has become a regular, recurring meeting (2016 and 2018), attracting a growing attendance.

 

 

 

Similarly, PECOP has grown in both depth and breadth: 

  • supporting more than two dozen PECOP Fellows and Thought Leaders to attend the 2014 ITL and develop a strong foundational network;  
  • holding regular networking sessions at the ITL and Experimental Biology; 
  • engaging the PECOP community in writing more than 70 blog entries on a range of education topics in the Life Science Teaching Resource Community (LifeSciTRC); 
  • promoting research collaborations among PECOP participants; and 
  • engaging physiology educators in leadership roles (6, 7) such as:
    • PECOP Blog Coordinator – Barbara Goodman, Sanford School of Medicine of The University of South Dakota;
    • PhUn Week Blog Coordinator – Patricia Halpin, University of New Hampshire at Manchester;
    • LifeSciTRC Community Review Editor – Lynn Diener, Mount Mary University;
    • ITL Program Committees led by Barbara Goodman and Thomas Pressley, Texas Tech Univ. Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. 

PECOP was supported initially by a one-year planning grant from the National Science Foundation Research Collaboration Network-Undergraduate Biology Education (RCN-UBE) Incubator program (Grant No. 1346220). In 2018, APS plans to submit a proposal for a five-year RCN-UBE grant to grow the PECOP network and activities. This growth will be guided and driven by the PECOP network of educators so we need to hear from YOU about what the PECOP community should do in the coming years. We have gathered three major ideas from previous PECOP networking sessions and ITL meeting discussions: 

  1. Help new educators get a good start.  

At the 2014 ITL, we pilot tested a new APS Professional Skills Training program, “Becoming an Effective Teacher.” Results were excellent and, using our new Schoology LMS for online professional development, APS staff can adapt these excellent materials for online use. However, this would be a community-driven program that needs experienced educators to share their expertise and guide new educators onto the “evidence-based teaching” path.  

          2. Help experienced educators use “evidence-based teaching” more effectively.  

Many of the ITL sessions and articles in both the PECOP blog and Advances in Physiology Education focus on using teaching methods that have strong evidence of their broad effectiveness. Other articles describe studies that compare methods or assess the effectiveness of methods in new teaching scenarios (diverse students, institutions, and courses). How can the PECOP community help colleagues who seek to increase the “evidence-base” of their teaching? The PECOP Fellows program helped a number of educators start on this path. Should we continue this program? 

          3. Help educators participate in scholarship of teaching and learning (SOTL). 

While we are often adept at designing (or helping students design) experiments at the bench, we are often genuinely perplexed when designing an experimental study involving the uber-tricky subject, the classroom student. Students differ widely so what can serve as the “control” group for my class? How many subjects do I need? What IS the unit of study? The student? The class? The course? What should I measure? Is that measure reliable? Is it valid? And what are the appropriate statistical tests to use? A good way to being engaging in SOTL is the same way we learned about bench research…we collaborated with and learned from someone with greater expertise. Our PECOP community has already fostered research collaborations among members. How can we grow the number of research collaborations in our community? 

 

What are YOUR ideas? 

These are just THREE of the many goals we could set for PECOP. Now share YOUR thoughts! How should PECOP support the growth and development of the physiology education community in the coming years?  

 

Reply to the discussion below or send your comments (by December 15) directly to me. Join us as we grow the PECOP community and support physiology educators! 

Marsha Matyas is a biologist, educator, and science education researcher. For nearly 30 years, she has worked at scientific professional associations (AAAS and now APS) to promote excellence in science education at all levels and to increase diversity within the scientific community. Marsha’s research focuses on factors that promote science career interest and success, especially among women and underrepresented minorities. At the APS, Marsha directs the Education Office and programs, which span from pre-Kindergarten to professional development and continuing education for Ph.D. and M.D. scientists.

 

References:

  1. What is the American Physiological Society’s ITL and who are the members of PECOP?

Barbara E. Goodman, Marsha Lakes Matyas, Advances in Physiology Education Jun 2016, 40 (2) 239-242; DOI:10.1152/advan.00045.2016. 

  1. Harnessing the power of an online teaching community: connect, share, and collaborate

Marsha Lakes Matyas, Dee U. Silverthorn, Advances in Physiology Education Dec 2015, 39 (4) 272-277; DOI: 10.1152/advan.00093.2015. 

  1. How do the Institutes on Teaching and Learning (ITLs) nurture the members of the Physiology Educators Community of Practice (PECOP)?

Barbara E. Goodman, Advances in Physiology Education Sep 2017, 41 (3) 354-356; DOI:10.1152/advan.00050.2017. 

  1. The pipeline of physiology courses in community colleges: to university, medical school, and beyond

Jenny McFarland, Pamela Pape-Lindstrom, Advances in Physiology Education Dec 2016, 40 (4) 473-476; DOI:10.1152/advan.00141.2016.  

  1.  The Physiology Education Community of Practice (PECOP) wants YOU!

Goodman, B. (2014, November 1).  Retrieved from: http://www.lifescitrc.org/resource.cfm?submissionID=11213. 

  1. Lurk or lead? The benefits of community participation

Marsha Lakes Matyas, Advances in Physiology Education Mar 2017, 41 (1) 145-148; DOI:10.1152/advan.00200.2016. 

  1. Educational leadership: benefits of stepping outside the classroom

Thomas A. Pressley, Advances in Physiology Education Sep 2017, 41 (3) 454-456; DOI:10.1152/advan.00083.2017. 

Who’s Teaching Tomorrow’s Teachers?

Have you ever had a colleague say to you:

 “They want me to teach in this new integrated physiology course, but no one has ever taught me how to be an effective teacher!  I’ll be so nervous and probably make embarrassing mistakes, like saying the “love hormone”, oxytocin, is synthesized from cholesterol in the adrenal medulla.”

Being asked to teach first year medical students can certainly be intimidating, but that assignment is not actually akin to being thrown to the wolves. It is true that medical students are often over-achievers, but it’s been my experience over many years that these students are respectful and anxious to learn.

 

Maybe I can offer you a few tips that will help you avoid or prevent these first time  ‘teaching jitters’:

  • Know your subject and relevant scientific facts inside and out
  • Take advantage of teaching skills, workshops, and faculty development programs at your institution or through professional organizations
  • Ask your colleagues for constructive criticism of your first presentations
  • Remember that practice makes perfect, at least most of the time
  • Remember that a good sense of humor goes a long way, but bad jokes rarely help the situation
  • Don’t be afraid that you will make a couple of mistakes- we all make them but not all of us learn from them
  • Work to create effective visuals which may include human interest stories, physiology in the news, and even masterpieces by your favorite artist

Another more proactive approach is to offer programs that will encourage students to pursue their interests in teaching and help them develop the communication skills and understanding of different learning styles and pedagogies that are so essential to becoming an enthusiastic and dedicated educator. Many medical students want to ultimately incorporate teaching into their future careers as clinicians, either by formally teaching in an academic medical center or more informally through their communication with patients and with the community at large.

Here at the Carver College of Medicine at The University of Iowa we encourage our students to pursue one of our specific distinction tracks, which include research, teaching, global health, service, humanities and healthcare delivery science and management, while they are pursuing their medical degree. Although the whole concept of “teaching medical students to teach” is certainly not unique to my institution (ref 1), I do believe that our Teaching Distinction track is unique and has succeeded in terms of achieving the desired outcomes.  I’ve been very fortunate, not to mention honored, to serve as the faculty mentor for several of our previous and current students who have selected to pursue their MD with a Distinction in Teaching. It has been very exciting for me to have the opportunity to impact a student’s learning, not only in the classroom, but also in terms of their own experiences and development as educators. It has also been very gratifying when a former mentee tells me that they learned so much from me- not just endocrinology and cell biology, but also how to convey passion and enthusiasm as a teacher.  Certainly this has been a win-win experience because I’ve learned so much from these students!  Maybe Henry Adams was right when he concluded that “A teacher affects eternity; he/she can never tell where his/her influence stops.”

In order to graduate with a Distinction in Teaching our students must meet a number of requirements that include a minimum of 60 hours of relevant teaching experiences that may include: tutoring and didactic teaching; creating new educational materials; serving as a small-group facilitator; and participation on medical education committees (ref 2).  These students are also required to develop a teaching portfolio and to successfully complete a 4-week teaching elective with a capstone project (ref 2).  Since this distinction track was fully implemented in 2010, approximately 60 students, or 7-8% of all graduates, have graduated with a Distinction in Teaching.  We’ve also heard anecdotally that some students have decided to attend medical school here at the University of Iowa because they specifically wanted to pursue this track, and that having this distinction track on their resume gave them a competitive advantage during their interviews for residency positions.

Great teachers are not always born with that potential, but frequently discover their passion at some point in their careers.   I hope that through this Teaching Distinction track we’ve trained and inspired some excellent teachers who will have major impacts on all of their future students.

References

  1. Soriano RP, Blatt B, Coplit L, CichoskiKelly E, Kosowicz L, Newman L, Pasquale SJ, Pretorius R, Rosen JM, Saks NS and Greenberg L. Teaching medical students to teach: a national survey of students-as-teachers programs in U.S. medical schools. Acad Med. 2010;85:1725-31.
  2. Schmidt TJ, Ferguson KJ, Hansen HB and Pettit JE. Teaching distinction track for future medical educators. Med. Sci. Educ. 2015;25:303-06.
Thomas Schmidt is a Professor in the Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics at the Carver College of Medicine, The University of Iowa. He is a Fellow of the American Physiological Society and has served on the Education Committee and the Career Opportunities in Physiology Committee.  He has been the recipient of numerous teaching awards including: The President and Provost Award for Teaching Excellence (The University of Iowa); Master Teacher Award (International Association of Medical Science Educators); and most recently the Arthur C. Guyton Educator of the Year Award (American Physiological Society).  He has served as a mentor for a number of medical students who have graduated with a Teaching Distinction.
Embracing Online Education: A Brief Personal Reflection

I would like to state upfront to all the loyal PECOP readers that I am not a blogger, nor am I an active participant in many social media venues and I do not Tweet! So when I was trying to decide what to write about I made a list of concerns that I face as a faculty member at a regional state university in the Midwest. My ideas included topics like life-work balance, burn-out, anti-science/academic sentiments, student retention, academic standards and institutional budget concerns. The list of possibilities was great, but this list seemed too negative for a career I truly do enjoy. I would like to instead speak briefly of a place that I have found refuge from many of the topics mentioned above. That refuge is the administration of an online Principles of Biology course.

I find it strange myself to consider how a person who may seemingly possess the characteristics of a social media Luddite, would want to get involved with and indeed embrace the world of online education. So I will list and briefly reflect on three areas that drew me to online education: love of learning; love of teaching; and accessibility.

Love of learning

I derive deep pleasure from learning new things and even reviewing those things that I already know.  After all, who would ever tire of learning and teaching about the structure and function of the mitotic spindle, the sarcomere, or how an action potential occurs or how a whole embryo forms from a single cell!  These cellular structures and their functions are so beautiful and amazing, that I really enjoy revisiting them again and again, each time adding a few new details to my lecture notes.  I also appreciate hearing others talk about subjects outside of biology, such as history and philosophy. One important venue I use for learning new things takes place in my car, during my daily commutes.  I listen to courses from The Great Courses series produced by the Teaching Company, lectures and talks from iBiology, hhmi/BioInteractive, various Ted talks, and individual posted lectures that can be found through a quick search on Google. Some of my favorites are bookmarked for easy retrieval or in the case of the Teaching Company courses, I actually own.  So what keeps me going as a faculty member through the periods of burn-out and meeting the daily requirements of academic life is the joy of learning and putting together a package of information and materials that students can use to learn about the subject as well or even just tweaking that material so students may learn it better.

Love of teaching

How can this love of learning get transferred from faculty to students in a way that also encourages students to become lifelong self-learners?  Can students really be taught to be lifelong self-learners? And, if so, what pedagogical methods are best suited to reach this goal? I have already discussed how I enjoy listening to educational lectures, but I would argue that the enjoyment of listening is not sufficient enough to learn the material.  In preparing for a lecture or to oversee meaningful active learning experiences, one is not simply able to listen to a great lecture and then be able to teach the material to students, expecting them to walk away and be able to apply that content in a meaningful way.

How then do faculty prepare to teach? Even if you are a fan of lecturing, most faculty members would agree that a fabulously well-delivered lecture, even a short one, is the result of hours of reading, reflection, writing, and repeating each of these!  I see this as the elephant in the room: that a great lecturer is really a great learner.  Thus, while it is quite enjoyable to hear a great lecture, it does not mean that the attending students are learning in a manner that creates lasting behavioral changes. This is in contrast to someone who has already engaged with the material. Even before I started teaching online, I had started assigning more readings, reflective writing assignments, and oral presentations from students in all my classes. When students now ask me every semester,” Do I really need to buy/rent the textbook?”  I say yes AND you must also read it and bring it with you to every class, as if your life …I mean your grade depends on it!

Accessibility

I have briefly reflected above on my love of learning and my love of teaching. And I try to model for my students, the skills I use to learn new material, such as reading the text, reflecting and writing on the material, as well as presenting the material to others during class through presentation and in accessing learning through quizzes and examinations. But do you have to be in the same classroom to teach this way? I have found the answer to be no. I have had the enlightening experience to see that I can assign the same readings, provide many of the same online resources for reflection and practice, and have regular meaningful interactions and quality controlled proctored assessments online through webcasting software such as Zoom with my online students as I have had with my face to face students. Online education at its best is more than simply posting content and assessments over a learning management system.  Depending on software and internet availability, I can be anywhere, the student can be anywhere, and we can still have a scheduled, meaningful face-to-face interaction. In fact, I am often finding the interactions with my online students to be more meaningful and memorable than the ones in my face to face classes. As I continue this adventure in online education, I hope to continue to be able to take my classroom on the road so to speak. Maybe the car in my daily commutes (especially with the advent of self-driving vehicles) will become “my classroom”, instead of where I merely arrive.

In summary, when the daily grind of academic duties and responsibilities gets me down and feeling negative, I have a place I can go and do what I enjoy most about academia, prepare and deliver material for students anytime and anyplace.

A short list of my favorite online lecture resources for the lifelong self-learner in us all

Melissa A. F. Daggett is an Associate Professor of Biology at Missouri Western State University, St. Joseph, MO. Melissa received her Ph.D. in Physiology and Cell Biology at The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS and completed post-doctoral work in gene regulation and sex determination at The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS. Melissa currently teaches Principles of Biology (both face to face and online), plus two senior undergraduate/graduate level courses in Developmental Biology and Molecular Cell Biology. She has also taught courses in Animal Physiology, Microbiology and Environmental Science. She is currently interested in expanding opportunities for course based undergraduate research experiences in all her courses; especially those projects related to environmental toxicology and development.
What makes a good teacher?

I was intrigued to read this PECOP blog post on what makes a good teacher from December 2016. The post recommends that we reflect on our teaching at the end of the semester, and begin the process of understanding our teaching perspectives through the Teaching Perspectives Inventory. What makes a good instructor is something that is extremely relevant to me, because teaching happens to be my job and my passion.

I was recently prompted to think about this very question as I made contact with my former secondary school in Liverpool, U.K about being featured as a former pupil of theirs (I feel more than slightly uneasy about being featured together with John Lennon however!). I was stimulated to think about my former teachers and what I had learned from their teaching. I left the school over 20 years ago but can to this day recall specific teachers, moments in class, and things I learned inside and outside the classroom. Certainly, that’s the kind of learning I’d like my students to have 20 years after I’ve taught them!

As I reflect on the teaching that I had, several aspects popped out to me.

A love of teaching: My best teachers clearly loved teaching students. They enjoyed interacting with students, creating a rapport with us, which made the subject matter come to life and facilitated our engagement with the material. I have come to the realization that perhaps the most important aspect of teaching is to enjoy connecting with your students in order to create an effective learning environment. The saying of “they won’t care what you know until they know that you care” is somewhat cliché but it has a lot of truth to it. As a soccer coach in my spare time, I frequently reflect on the fact that if you don’t like kids, you shouldn’t coach youth soccer. In the same way, our teaching is unlikely to be as effective as it could be if we don’t like interacting with our students and enjoy teaching them.

Meeting students at their level: My English literature teacher taught us Pride & Prejudice, a text that many in my class found somewhat boring. My teacher perceived the boredom, and attempted to understand why it could be perceived as boring to my classmates. He then adapted his teaching to this in order to emphasize why the text was important. He attempted to bring the text to his students and make it relevant to them, rather than merely expecting students to engage, understand and enjoy the text automatically.

Adaptable: The best lesson I ever had was a history lesson. My teacher was a few minutes late, and as we all sat inside the classroom waiting for him, a dispute arose amongst two students in the class. The teacher came into the classroom and upon encountering the dispute, proceeded to set up a court to judge the basis of the evidence of the ‘crime’, as an example of the history of trials and determining justice. I have no idea if that was his intended lesson, but I was in awe of how the teacher adapted his lesson so perfectly to something that had just happened in the class. It is a reminder to me to be observant and adapt to issues that our students may be experiencing.

Practical: One of the most salient things I learned came from a teacher who was supervising me as I visited potential colleges. We were looking for somewhere to eat dinner one evening, and as we walked past various eating establishments, he gave me the advice of “never eat in an empty restaurant”. This has stuck with me ever since and I apply it frequently when deciding where to eat. It was practical advice on something that I had never before considered, and the ‘light bulb’ lit up for me. Reflecting on this, I see our role as teachers to help our students see beyond the immediate – to analyze and think critically about what we see with our eyes, and to help them consider what things mean. Finally, what we teach them must also be practical and relevant.

From these reflections, I have come to the realization that a good teacher is someone who is able to adapt to where our students are in terms of the knowledge that they come with, and take them to higher levels of learning that they cannot get to on their own.

What is your definition of a good teacher?

 Hugh Clements-Jewery PhD is currently Visiting Research Associate Professor and M1 Course Director in Physiology at the University of Illinois College of Medicine in Rockford, IL, starting in November 2016. Prior to moving to the University of Illinois, he taught medical physiology at the West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine from 2007 to 2016. He is a certified trainer-consultant in Team-Based Learning.

The Surprising Advantages Retrieval Practice

Retrieval practice,  retrieval __________,    _________ practice,  testing effect……wuh?!?!

Retrieval practice simply means to actively recall information following exposure (e.g., studying). Because tests are a particularly common and effective means by which to prompt the retrieval of specific pieces of information, the learning benefits of retrieval practice are also known as the testing effect. That is, effective tests can do more than simply assess learning; they can strengthen learning by prompting retrieval. It is important to clarify that the key to the testing effect is the retrieval and not the test per se. Therefore, the testing effect pertains to not only traditional assessments like tests and quizzes, but also to free recall. So, silently answering questions in your mind (e.g., self-testing) is an example of testing that promotes learning.

Landmark study by Roediger and Karpicke in 2006a

Figure 1. Repeated testing lead to better long-term recall when compared to repeated studying. Roediger and Karpicke, 2006a.

Although the testing effect has been described by studies that date back more than a century, researchers and articles often cite a 2006a study by Roediger and Karpicke as the source of renewed interest in the strategy and effect. In that study, the investigators asked three groups of undergraduates to read passages that were about 250 words long. One group of students learned the passages by studying (i.e., reading) them four times (SSSS group). A second group learned the passages by studying them three times and then completing a test in which they were prompted to retrieve information from the passages (SSST group). The last group studied the passages just one time and then performed the retrieval test three times (STTT group). All three groups were given a total of 20 minutes to learn each passage, following which their retention was assessed via free recall either 5 minutes or 1 week later. As you can see in Figure 1, there was a modest advantage with the SSSS strategy, as well as a modest disadvantage with the STTT strategy, immediately after learning the passages. However, the exact opposite pattern was observed one week later, as the STTT group’s recall scores were about 5% higher and 21% higher than those of the SSST and SSSS groups, respectively. The results of this study demonstrated that testing/retrieval practice can be a powerful means of improving long-term memory. These advantages to long-term recall have subsequently been confirmed by many different researchers and investigations (see Roediger and Butler 2011; Roediger and Karpicke, 2006b for review).

Retrieval practice and the ability to make inferences; it isn’t just about simple recall

Figure 2. Retrieval practice resulted in higher scores on verbatim and inferential questions. Derived from Karpicke and Blunt, 2011.

One might be concerned that retrieval practice is just a form of drill and practice that merely teaches people to produce a fixed response to a specific cue. Karpicke and Blunt (2011) addressed this concern by comparing the effects of retrieval practice and concept mapping on meaningful learning, which includes the ability to draw conclusions and create new ideas. The investigators chose concept mapping for this comparison because it known to promote elaborative (i.e., complex) learning. In one experiment, one group of students learned a science text by repeatedly reading (i.e., studying) it, another group studied the text and then used it create a concept map, and a third group studied and then recalled the text two times. The total amount of time the concept mapping and retrieval practice groups were given to learn the text was standardized. The students returned the following week and completed a short-answer test that included both questions that could be answered verbatim from the text and questions that required inferences. As is displayed in Figure 2, the retrieval practice strategy resulted in superior scores on not just the verbatim questions, but also on the inference questions. That is, the advantages of retrieval practice extended beyond simple recall and to meaningful learning. These findings are supported by numerous other investigations (see Karpicke and Aue, 2015 for review), including a subsequent study by the same authors (Blunt and Karpicke, 2014).

Okay, so retrieval practice has been shown to enhance recall and meaningful learning, but does it work with the types of information that are relevant to APS members?

Figure 3. The testing strategy resulted in superior performance on both sections of the six month assessment. Derived from Larsen, Butler and Roediger, 2009.

Yes………numerous studies support this claim. One notable example was a study by Larsen, Butler and Roediger (2009) in which two groups of medical residents first attended lectures on the treatments of both status epilepticus and myasthenia gravis. Immediately after the lectures, and then again about two and four weeks later, the residents studied (i.e., read) a review sheet pertaining to the treatment of one of those diseases and they completed a retrieval test that included feedback on the other treatment. Roughly six months after the lectures, the residents completed a final assessment that covered the treatment of both diseases. As you can see in Figure 3, the testing strategy resulted in scores that were about 11% and 17% higher than those associated with the studying strategy on the status epilepticus and myasthenia gravis sections, respectively. It is also worth noting that the overall effect size pertaining to those differences was large (Cohen’s d = 0.91). The same group of researchers went on publish similar findings with groups of first-year medical students (Larsen et al, 2013). In that follow-up study, a testing-based strategy produced superior recall and greater transfer of learning of four clinical neurology topics six months after the students first encountered them.

Our lab has also recently published numerous studies with relevant materials, and we observed several advantages with retrieval practice compared to more commonly-used reading and note-taking learning strategies. For example, we found that retrieval-based strategies resulted in superior recall of exercise physiology (Linderholm, Dobson and Yarbrough, 2016) and anatomy and physiology course information (Dobson and Linderholm, 2015a; Dobson and Linderholm, 2015b), including information that consisted of concepts and terminology that were previously unfamiliar to the students (Dobson, Linderholm and Yarbrough, 2015). We have also observed advantages to independent student learning that resulted in higher scores on course exams (Dobson and Linderholm, 2015a), as well as to the ability to synthesize themes from multiple sources (Linderholm, Dobson and Yarbrough, 2016), which is a skill that requires higher orders of cognition.

Just give me the take home messages.

  • Dozens of studies have demonstrated that retrieval practice can promote superior recall and meaningful learning when compared to more commonly-used strategies like reading. (Karpicke and Aue, 2015; Roediger and Butler, 2011; Roediger and Karpicke, 2006b).
  • Although some studies have provided evidence that essay and short answer (SA) questions can lead to a greater testing effect than multiple choice (MC) questions (Roediger and Karpicke, 2006b; Butler and Roediger, 2007), a recent study by Smith and Karpicke (2014) indicated that MC and SA questions are equally effective.
  • Multiple repetitions of retrieval practice promote more learning than a single retrieval event (Roediger and Butler, 2011; Roediger and Karpicke, 2006b)
  • The benefits of retrieval practice are enhanced if learners receive feedback after they retrieve (Roediger and Butler, 2011; Roediger and Karpicke, 2006b).

Great, but how do you apply retrieval practice in the classroom?

  • Summative assessments. Tests prompt retrieval, so one way to incorporate more retrieval practice into your classes is to have your students complete both more exams and more cumulative exams.
  • Formative assessments. There are numerous reasons to use low-stakes assessments like quizzes instead of tests. Quizzes may be just as effective at prompting retrieval, and they provide valuable feedback about performance to both instructors and students, but they typically elicit less anxiety and encourage less cheating. Suggested applications include starting class meetings with a short quiz that prompts students to retrieve information that will be developed during the lecture and/or end class meetings with a short quiz to get students to retrieve the important take home messages of the lecture.
  • In-class retrieval assignments. A great way to break up the monotony of lectures is to have students complete retrieval assignments during class meetings. For example, have individuals or groups of students retrieve information and then present it to the rest of the class.
  • Encourage students to use retrieval practice outside of class. One of the greatest benefits of retrieval practice is that it easy to use; all one needs to do is to recall information from memory. I encourage my students to use retrieval practice by first presenting to them some of the evidence of its effectiveness (described above), and then by suggesting some methods they may use to employ the strategy that (e.g., take turns quizzing or teaching fellow students, quiz one-self, or simply freely recall portions of the information). Again, it is important to emphasize that multiple retrieval events are more beneficial, and that each or most of those should include feedback. For example, have students study then retrieve then study again to receive feedback, etc.

 References

  1. Dobson JL, Linderholm T, Yarbrough MB. Self-testing produces superior recall of both familiar and unfamiliar muscle information. Advances in Physiology Education 39: 309-314, 2015
  2. Dobson JL and Linderholm T, The effect of selected “desirable difficulties” on the ability to recall anatomy information. Anatomical Sciences Education 8: 395-403, 2015.
  3. Dobson JL, Linderholm T. Self-testing promotes superior retention of anatomy and physiology information. Advances in Health Sciences Education 20: 149-161, 2015.
  4. Butler AC, Roediger HL. Testing improves long-term retention in a simulated classroom setting. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 19: 514-527, 2007.
  5. Blunt JR, Karpicke JD. Learning with retrieval-based concept mapping. Journal of Educational Psychology 106: 849, 2014.
  6. Dobson JL, Perez J, Linderholm T. Distributed retrieval practice promotes superior recall of anatomy information. Anatomical Sciences Education DOI: 10.1002/ase.1668, 2016.
  7. Karpicke JD, Aue, WR. The testing effect is alive and well with complex materials. Educational Psychology Review 27: 317-326, 2015.
  8. Karpicke JD, Blunt JR. Retrieval practice produces more learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping. Science 331: 772-775, 2011.
  9. Larsen DP, Butler AC, Roediger HL. Repeated testing improves long-term retention relative to repeated study: A randomized controlled trial. Medical Education 43: 1174-1181, 2009.
  10. Larsen DP, Butler AC, Lawson AL, Roediger HL. The importance of seeing the patient: Test-enhanced learning with standardized patients and written tests improves clinical application of knowledge. Advances in Health Sciences Education 18: 409-25, 2013.
  11. Linderholm T, Dobson JL, Yarbrough MB. The benefit of self-testing and interleaving for synthesizing concepts across multiple physiology Advances in Physiology Education 40: 329-34, 2016.
  12. Roediger HL, Butler AC. The critical role of retrieval practice in long-term retention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15: 20-27, 2011.
  13. Roediger HL, Karpicke JD. Test-enhanced learning: Taking memory tests improves long-term retention. Psychological Science 17: 249-255, 2006.
  14. Roediger HL, Karpicke JD. The power of testing memory: Basic research and implications for educational practice. Perspectives in Psychological Science 1: 181-210, 2006.
  15. Smith MA, Karpicke JD. Retrieval practice with short-answer, multiple-choice, and hybrid tests. Memory 22: 784-802, 2014.
 John Dobson is an Associate Professor in the School of Health and Kinesiology at Georgia Southern University. John received his M.S. and Ph.D. in Exercise Physiology at Auburn University. Although most of his research has focused on the application of learning strategies that were developed by cognitive scientists, he has also recently published articles on peripheral neuropathy and concussion-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. He teaches undergraduate and graduate Anatomy and Physiology, Structural Kinesiology, Exercise Physiology, Cardiovascular Pathophysiology courses. He has been an active member of the American Physiological Society since 2009, and he received the Teaching Section’s New Investigator Award in 2010 and Research Recognition Award in 2011.
Boredom, the Evil Destroyer of Motivation vs. Inquiry, the Motivation Maker

Students have an innate desire to learn and more learning takes place when doing rather than when listening. (4)  This begins in pre-school and kindergarten when children have fun while learning by playing with blocks, coloring, drawing, etc.  This is their first experience with active learning.  But then as education progresses through grade school, high school and college, something bad happens.  That is, fun learning activities are slowly replaced with often very boring listening activities filled with inane factoids, and consequently, students often become disinterested.  The disinterest is seen in the form of poor class attendance, and the lack of motivation is palpable through continual yawns, bobbing heads, and walking to the back of the classroom and looking at student laptops to see how many are streaming Netflix or shopping for shoes.  As educators that take part in this process, we actively destroy their innate desire to learn.  We do not do this intentionally, as all of us want our students to learn as much as possible.  However, with the ever increasing and endless mountain of information, we cannot teach them everything, and often feel that we should be actively teaching, rather than letting them actively learn. (3)  Thus, after hours, days and years of sitting in class “listening”, the traditional “sage on the stage” can slowly chip away at the inner desire to learn.  But, if this internal motivation can be decreased by boring activities, can it also be increased by fun or intriguing activities?

 

As educators, we hold an awesome power that has the potential to inspire and increase student motivation.  Student-centered learning activities that include but are not limited to collaborative group testing, inquiry-based learning, team-based learning and laboratory exercises (5) provide students with the opportunity to apply their minds, to have fruitful discussions with their peers (2) and to see and appreciate the complex beauty that science and medicine are.  If we can provide our students with learning activities that open their imaginations and make them feel excitement, we can actively increase their innate desire to learn, and improve their chances of success. (1)  In doing so, the awesome potential power that we hold can become fully realized in the form of life-long learners.

 

References

  1. Augustyniak RA, Ables AZ, Guilford P, Lujan HL, Cortright RN, and DiCarlo SE. Intrinsic motivation: an overlooked component for student success. Adv Physiol Educ 40: 465-466, 2016.
  2. Cortright RN, Collins HL, and DiCarlo SE. Peer instruction enhanced meaningful learning: ability to solve novel problems. Adv Physiol Educ 29: 107-111, 2005.
  3. DiCarlo SE. Too much content, not enough thinking, and too little fun! Adv Physiol Educ 33: 257-264, 2009.
  4. Freeman S, Eddy SL, McDonough M, Smith MK, Okoroafor N, Jordt H, and Wenderoth MP. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111: 8410-8415, 2014.
  5. Goodman BE. An evolution in student-centered teaching. Adv Physiol Educ 40: 278-282, 2016.

 

 

Robert A. Augustyniak is an Associate Professor and Physiology Discipline Chair at Edward Via college of Osteopathic Medicine- Carolinas Campus, Spartanburg, SC. Rob received his Ph.D. in Physiology at Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, and subsequently completed a post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. A cardiovascular physiologist by training, his studies have focused on the blood pressure regulation during exercise and in heart failure and hypertensive states. In 2009, Rob became a founding faculty member at Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine where he began to focus on the scholarship of medical education. These research interests continued to grow when he moved to Spartanburg, SC in 2013. He is profoundly interested in how medical student motivation impacts learning and in finding best practices in teaching and assessment that can increase motivation. For the past several years, he has been and continues to be active within the leadership of the APS Teaching Section.

Confessions of a Frequent Lurker: Getting What You Need from Online Communities

As one of the founding leaders of PECOP, I’m always exhorting people  to “Engage! Get involved! Comment! Rate! Review! Contribute!” But today I willingly confess:  I am an online lurker. It’s not as shocking as it sounds. I’m part of the >90% of people who go to online communities to get information but rarely share or contribute.  For example, I spent the last half hour at Overstock.com shopping for a cushion for my outdoor chair. I found the product I wanted easily and spent the next 15 minutes reading reviews at both Overstock and Amazon to see whether previous purchasers (e.g., the customer “community”) thought the cushion was worth the money. One lady offered up the history of her patio décor…pretty useless.  But most reviews were short, to the point, and valuable. My “lurking” led me to feel confident about the purchase so I bought the cushion. In the last year, I have used online communities to “research” all kinds of purchases from shoes to cars to plumbing services. More importantly, I “lurk” at online communities to learn about services, apps, journals, organizations, and publications.

What’s wrong with being a lurker? Absolutely nothing! It’s one of the five phases of community membership as described by Kim (2006) and Noff:

  • Lurkers: those who visit infrequently, read, but never participate (i.e., comment or submit new content)
  • Novices: those who are new and are seeking to learn the rules of the community and how to participate
  • Insiders: those who participate regularly in the community
  • Leaders: those who not only participate, but encourage interaction and engagement by others
  • Elders: those who are leaving the community due to changes in personal interests, changes in the community, etc.

Lurkers also are the dominant group in community membership. In 2006, the Nielsen Norman Group found that 90% of online community members are lurkers, 9% of members comment occasionally and only 1% of members actively contribute significant content. More recent data suggests that engagement is increasing and, by 2011, engagement looked more like 70-20-10 for lurkers-commenters-content creators. But the vast majority of members are still primarily lurkers.

Why do so many of us lurk rather than engage in online communities? Blogger Joel Lee suggests that many feel they have nothing worthy to contribute while others fear negative reactions to their comments or questions. Alternatively, as a commenter to Lee’s blog noted, users may simply have better things to do with their time than to engage.

Social media

However, for professional networking, online community use is growing.  A recent survey by the Society of New Communication Research (SNCR) found that people spend much more of their online time in professional networks than with friends or family. And when asked what online channels they use to share information with colleagues, social networking (25%), microblogging (e.g., Twitter, 28%), and direct email (31%) comprised the top three methods and were surprisingly comparable in frequency.

Why engage, comment, or contribute? The SNCR survey found that the top two reasons people moved from lurker to participant were:

  1. To help others by sharing information, ideas, and experiences; and
  2. To participate in a professional community of colleagues and peers.

How do YOU choose? Where do you lurk? Where do you contribute? And where do you lead?

Personally, I lurk at sites where I’m considering buying something, taking a course, going to visit…essentially where I’m a consumer and have limited expertise to offer. I contribute to sites that I use regularly for travel or business. Friends know I’m a frequent TripAdvisor reviewer and share science news on my Facebook page. My APS colleagues know I use Vivino to select and submit reviews of wines for APS committee dinners. I lead at those sites where I fill a specific role (e.g., my church’s Facebook page). Of course, here at the LifeSciTRC, I get to do a lot of leading and contributing!

What do we gain by contributing? Kollock (1999) says active users receive more useful help than do lurkers. He also states that visible and useful contributions lead to a positive reputation in the community and that actively contributing helps users feel that they have a real impact on their communities. For me, it’s all about give and take. I receive a steady stream of helpful information from online communities…I try to return the favor. And I learn how to use social media by contributing. It really demystifies the whole process.

Have you had good or bad experiences through lurking, commenting, or contributing to a community? Please share on the bulletin board below…let’s keep the conversation going. After all, this OUR PECOP community!

In the meantime, I’ll wait for my chair cushion to arrive. I will receive several emails from Overstock.com asking me to review it. If I like the cushion, I will be inclined to ignore the emails, but I really should write a review. Of course, if the cushion is rubbish, I will most certainly, in the words of Captain Picard, ”Engage!”

 

Resources

Kollock, P. The economies of online cooperation: Gifts and public goods in cyberspace. In  M. Smith and P. Kollock (Eds.), Communities in Cyberspace. London: Routledge.

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Marsha Matyas is a biologist, educator, and science education researcher. For nearly 30 years, she has worked at scientific professional associations (AAAS and now APS) to promote excellence in science education at all levels and to increase diversity within the scientific community. Marsha’s research focuses on factors that promote science career interest and success, especially among women and underrepresented minorities. At the APS, Marsha directs the Education Office and programs, which span from pre-Kindergarten to professional development and continuing education for Ph.D. and M.D. scientists. Marsha will be speaking more about community engagement, especially for physiology educators, at the APS Institute on Teaching and Learning.