Active and cooperative learning strategies are useful tools for engaging students in the classroom and improving learning (Allen & Tanner, 2005; García-Almeida & Cabrera-Nuez, 2020; Montrezor, 2021). These learning strategies require students to engage with course content by “seeking new information, organizing it in a way that is meaningful, and having the chance to explain it to others” (Allen & Tanner, 2005, p. 262). Both active and cooperative learning emphasize peer interactions and give students opportunities to demonstrate understanding.
The COVID-19 pandemic provided an opportunity for instructors to practice new pedagogies in face to face, hybrid, and remote learning environments. Prior to the pandemic, I often asked students to use the classroom white boards collaboratively to draw diagrams, processes, and outline concepts. Given limitations on face to face interactions in hybrid and remote classes, I used Google’s Jamboard to recreate this in-class experience for a virtual Human Anatomy & Physiology course. Students were Exercise and Health Science majors and minors. The course was offered in 15, three-hour class periods over a four-week course block in spring 2021. The three-hour class periods necessitated a variety of pedagogies to maintain student engagement.
Jamboard is a virtual white board space that can be used collaboratively by sharing a link with others. Before sharing, the link settings must be adjusted to allow any user with the link to edit the Jamboard. Each board can hold up to 20 different frames, or white board spaces, which can be modified by adding figures, text, drawings, and sticky notes. I began the first day of class demonstrating to students how to use Jamboard. We started with a blank frame and I asked students to add “sticky notes” to the board with thoughts about how they would stay engaged with the course during our three-hour meeting time. Students also practiced using various editing tools such as the pen, textbox, and creating shapes. The students and I both found Jamboard very user friendly and easy to navigate.
In subsequent classes, I created specific Jamboard frames prior to class with the outline of an activity or figures. Some frames were created for the class to contribute to collaboratively, similar to a jigsaw format. For example, a picture of a neuron was added to one frame (Figure 1).
Preassigned student groups worked in Zoom breakout rooms to identify one anatomical location and describe its primary function on the neuron. Each group was assigned a different neuron structure and reported back to the class after their group work. During the cardiovascular physiology unit, student groups were each assigned one component of the cardiac cycle on a Wigger’s diagram. Groups worked in Zoom breakout rooms to identify their component of the cycle and write an explanation on the diagram. Groups also collaboratively completed a chart with each group completing one row or column in the chart (Figure 2). Jamboard was also useful for students to order and label steps in a physiological process. In the skeletal muscle unit, students worked in groups to correctly order the steps of muscle contraction. Each group was assigned one picture on the Jamboard frame, groups placed their picture in the correct order and used a textbox or sticky note to describe the picture.
For other activities, frames were created once and duplicated for each group with the group number noted at the top of the frame. Frames containing concept map instructions or feedback loop skeletons were duplicated for each group. For example, groups worked in Zoom breakout rooms to design a concept map demonstrating the relationships between cell membrane components (Figure 3) or outline a control system for different responses to deviations for homeostasis. During the homeostatic control system activity, each group was assigned a different control system. Groups reported back to the class as a whole and described their work to the class (Figure 4).
At the end of the course, students were surveyed about our Jamboard use. Of 17 students, 11 completed the survey. Overall, students indicated that Jamboard was an effective learning (100%, n=11) and group engagement tool (100%, n=11). In open-ended responses, students indicated that Jamboard was most effective for engaging in collaboration and checks for understanding during class. They especially liked that Jamboard helped create an in class feeling and kept them engaged with their class and their group in an interactive way. Even though groups were often labeled on Jamboard (e.g.- one frame labeled “Group 1 Concept Map” or a diagram with a “1” and arrow pointing to a specific area for identification for Group 1), several students remarked that they liked the anonymity provided by Jamboard and the lower perceived pressure to answer correctly. Students listed labeling diagrams (n=10), creating concept maps (n=7), and drawing physiological processes (n=6) as their favorite Jamboard activities. The students also appreciated that the boards were available after class for review. I posted the Jamboard link to our learning management system (Canvas) and students could return to the boards to review after class. 100% (n=11) of student respondents indicated they went back to the Jamboards two or more times after class to review.
From the instructor perspective, Jamboard provided an easy online collaborative tool for teaching physiology. Jamboard was user-friendly, flexible, and easy to set up before or during class. I found that my students were able to sustain engagement during three hours of remote class. The Jamboard group assignments were not graded, but asking student groups to report back to the class was effective motivation for producing quality group work. Challenges associated with Jamboard were consistent with most online activities including student access to a computer and reliable internet. Students occasionally had issues accessing the board anonymously if they were logged into their personal google accounts.
In moving back to face to learning, the Jamboard activities could be easily done on a whiteboard; however, collaborative drawing and annotating diagrams and charts might still be difficult without appropriate projectors or smartboard technology. Additionally, extra steps involved in taking a picture of the white board and uploading the picture to a course webpage may be barriers to making the collaborative work available after class for review. Jamboard could also be used for out of class individual or group assignments such a pre- or post- class assignments or for brainstorming activities. While the class size in the present example is quite small (17 students), use of Jamboard in these ways would be easily adaptable to larger classes and may improve student engagement in large classes (Essop & Beselaar, 2020)
Overall, Jamboard was an effective online collaborative tool for teaching and learning human physiology. Jamboard was user-friendly, easy to prepare before class, and kept students engaged with the class and their groups.
Allen, D., & Tanner, K. (2005). Infusing Active Learning into the Large-enrollment Biology Class: Seven Strategies, from the Simple to Complex. Cell Biology Education, 4(4), 262–268. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.05-08-0113
Essop, M. F., & Beselaar, L. (2020). Student response to a cooperative learning element within a large physiology class setting: Lessons learned. Advances in Physiology Education, 44(3), 269–275. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00165.2019
García-Almeida, D. J., & Cabrera-Nuez, M. T. (2020). The influence of knowledge recipients’ proactivity on knowledge construction in cooperative learning experiences. Active Learning in Higher Education, 21(1), 79–92. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787418754569
Montrezor, L. H. (2021). Lectures and collaborative working improves the performance of medical students. Advances in Physiology Education, 45(1), 18–23. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00121.2020