Category Archives: Technology for Teaching

Synchronous and asynchronous experiences in Advanced Exercise Physiology Courses: what teaching tools work best for my students?

Covid-19 caught all of us off guard, but educators were hit particularly hard and uniquely. I already have flipped classroom teaching and active learning, so the transition was not too difficult for me. However, I found myself incorporating many technological innovations. Was I doing too much? Which features were helping my students, and which ones were overwhelming? In this blog, I want to share some of the strategies I used with undergraduate students taking Advanced Exercise Physiology synchronously and asynchronously.

 

Additionally, within this blog, I am sharing the student’s perceptions of these technological innovations. In total, fifty-two students enrolled in different sections of “Advanced Exercise Physiology” culminating undergraduate experience (CUE) were invited to participate in a short survey regarding their learning experiences during this current Spring 2021 semester. A total of thirty-nine (n=39) students completed the confidential survey about whether different technological innovations helped them understand the material and study.

Who completed the survey?

Figure 1: Fifty-two students enrolled either in synchronous or asynchronous undergraduate advanced exercise physiology sections were invited to participate, and thirty-nine (n=39) responses were obtained. Seventy-two percent of the responders were enrolled in the asynchronous section, and 27.78% were enrolled in the synchronous section.

 

 

Video assignment for glucose metabolism

 During pre-COVID-19 times, I would teach using active-learning team-based instruction. For the first team-based assignment, student teams were asked to discuss and explain in easy terms one of the most difficult topics for my students: glucose metabolism. For this activity, I would bring Legos, markers of different colors, magnets, and other toys; and students were asked to use the materials and make a video of the complete oxidation of a glucose molecule. This in-class, graded assignment seem to help students to understand the metabolic pathways.  I modified the project due to distance learning, so each student has to create a video using any material desired to explain in simple words (without chemical formulas). This assignment is based on the constructivism theory of learning. It makes it innovative because the students learned that glucose is a six-carbon molecule that has to be fully “broken down” (oxidated) through different stages. Once they understand the steps, they could “name” each step and each enzyme. Some students used coins, Legos, or wrote down the step while explaining the process verbally. Some examples of the submissions can be seen in the links below:

Example submission glycolysis  one and example complete glucose oxidation.

 Students perception on making a video assignment for glucose metabolism

Figure 2: Students’ responses to the question “Having to make the video of metabolism in assignment two helped me understand glucose metabolism.” 71.43% responded true (it was helpful), and 28.57% responded false (it was not helpful)

 

 

 

Incorporation of Virtual Lab Experiences using Visible Body and Lt Kuracloud platforms.

One of the main concerns for me was to maintain and increase engagement while teaching virtually or remotely. I incorporated the Lt Kuracloud, a platform for interactive assignments, immediate feedback, videos, and physiology laboratory experiences in all my courses. I took advantage of the free trial, and I used it for some assignments. I received unsolicited emails from students expressing how helpful they found these assignments.  I also used Visible Body Anatomy and Physiology, which I used for lectures. I recommended it to students as supplemental material and for self-graded quizzes. Visible Body Anatomy and Physiology is available at no cost to students as our Institution’s library obtained the subscription for all the students.

Students’ perceptions: “How helpful do you find the following features? “

Figure 3: Responses to the question: How helpful do you find the following features (from 0 to 100 being 0 not useful to 100 very useful). The mean value for assignments in Lt Kuracloud was 79.08/100 (sd= 21), and for Visible Body was 74.74/100 (sd= 24)

 

Old Reliable Discussion Board

I recently completed my training on Quality Matters (QM) certification (1), and so my courses follow the rubrics of QM Higher Education General Standards. Specifically, QM Module 1 suggests using an introductory welcoming video encouraging the students to introduce themselves to the class using a video, a meme, a photo, or text. The best, and probably the only feature on Blackboard to do this is the “Discussion Board.” The discussion board is a great feature that allows students to increase participation. After all, students are the biggest consumers of social media, videos, and memes. The Discussion Board should be the closest FERPA approved version of TikTok or Facebook, right? WRONG! It worked fine for the first thread entitled “welcome,” most of the students responded by typing to answer the questions. Nobody made a voice thread, a meme, or a video. Afterward, I encouraged participation on the discussion board by posting questions and suggesting posting questions on the discussion board. After a few “virtual crickets” on Discussion Board, I quit posting questions there and developed interactive lectures with pop-up quizzes. As expected, Discussion Board was not very popular among my students.

Students’ perceptions: “How helpful do you find the discussion board on Blackboard? “

 Figure 4: Responses to the question: How helpful do you find the following features (from 0 to 100 being 0 not useful to 100 very useful). The mean value for the discussion board was 43.08/100 (sd= 25).

 Interactive pre-recorded lectures

Pre-recorded lectures are integral components of my synchronous and asynchronous course sections. These are developed using the interactive feature in Camtasia, in which I developed animated lectures. Thus, students are asked to watch the lessons and complete short quizzes that provide immediate feedback. If the concept is mastered, the student continues watching. If not, they are redirected to the lecture or part of the lecture where the concept is explained.

 Students’ perceptions: “How helpful do you find the interactive pre-recorded lectures? “

Figure 5: Responses to the question: How helpful do you find the following features (from 0 to 100 being 0 not useful to 100 very useful). The mean value for interactive pre-recorded lectures was 79.27/100 (sd= 16.8), and for Visible Body was 81.74/100 (sd= 17.8)

 

Quizlet and Quizlet live game

Like many educators worldwide, I teach my students and support their learning throughout our virtual synchronous meetings. Indeed, this is not easy. One day, as I was finishing my class, I heard screams and laughs! My ten-year-old was having so much fun in his most favorite subject. What is going on? I asked, “it was a close one,” my son said, “I got second place.”  It turned out that he was playing a “Quizlet Game.” Quizlet and Quizlet live have been used by teachers and students to reinforce learned material. I decided to try it, and I created a teacher profile to play games during the remote lectures. Every class, I started a Quizlet game; students use their phones or computers to play a race (team and individual). They play a “race” at the beginning of the class and again at the end of the class. This low-risk activity provides me with important information about misconceptions or concepts that are not mastered yet. Students play again towards the end of the class. This simple activity takes 10 minutes of instruction (5 minutes each “race”). However, it has been proven to be both helpful and fun for the students. Quizlet live was used only in my synchronous classes, but the Quizlet study sets were available to both synchronous and asynchronous sections.

I used this with graduate students enrolled in Human Physiology in the previous semester, and it was a hit! Students loved it, and class after class, this became very competitive. Not only were my students very well prepared for class, but also the competition made it so much fun!

Similar to Quizlet are such programs as Kahoot, Brainscape,  and others that are available for free or very affordable options.

Students’ perceptions: “How helpful do you find Quizlet study sets and Quizlet live? “

Figure 6: Responses to the question: How helpful do you find the following features (from 0 to 100 being 0 not useful to 100 very useful). The mean value for Quizlet sets was 76.86/100 (sd= 24), and for Quizlet live was 68.31/100 (sd= 28). One limitation is that most responders were students in the asynchronous section who did not participate in Quizlet live games.

 

MS Teams meetings and/or virtual office hours

 I chose Microsoft Teams (MS) for my virtual meetings simply because it is widely adopted at my Institution, and I prefer to keep it simple for students. For my synchronous section, I used a flipped virtual model, in which we meet once per week, and the other day they work on their own on assignments. I did this to avoid screen burnout students in the synchronous section. However, I have been happily surprised with students attending remote classes and the various office hours I provide. Yes, I do provide different office hours; very much this semester, I made every space available on my calendar as extra office hours. I realize that for many, meeting online for “virtual office hours” is more accessible to them (and perhaps less intimidating) than attending office hours in my office, as we did pre-pandemic.

Why did I offer so many office hours? First of all, because I could. Since I can’t conduct research studies with humans during the pandemic, it freed some time I had set aside for data collection to teaching.

Additionally, not driving to and from campus saved me an average of 75 minutes per day, which allowed me to have another office hour option. In reality, I did not use all these hours in meetings with students. Many times nobody needed to meet. However, there were a couple of times in which I’d meet with a student who was struggling. Not with the class or the content. But struggling with life, some students had somebody close to them sick or dying; some lost their job or financial aid, some were working exceptionally long hours as essential workers. For some, isolation was too much. One student, in particular, told me recently, “I do not have any questions today; I just needed some social interaction.” Flexible and various virtual office hours seemed beneficial for students, particularly for those in asynchronous e-learning experiences.

Students’ perceptions: “How helpful do you find the MS Teams meetings and virtual office hours? “

 

Figure 7: Responses to the question: How helpful do you find the following features (from 0 to 100 being 0 not useful to 100 very useful). The mean value for MS Teams and Virtual Office Hours was 75.86/100 (sd= 21).

 

 

 Conclusions

 Like most higher education instructors, I had to adapt quickly and shift to e-learning due to the pandemic. Fortunately, I had already taught online several times before and introduced several components to my flipped courses. However, I still struggled to find more interactive ways to keep my students engaged. Not only educators have to deal with the mental exhaustion of finding pedagogical tools that work in this new scenario when we have not had the time to produce evidence-based successful approaches to teaching remotely. But also, we are teaching distraught students. From the scarce but rapidly growing literature, we know that “our college students are currently struggling to stay hopeful and positive in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic” (2). When asked about their feelings during the transition to virtual classes, students reported that they felt “uncertain” (59.5%), “anxious” (50.7%), “nervous” (41.2%), and “sad” (37.2%). (3) We have to teach students that are dealing with a lot of negative emotions and stress. We, educators, are also living with many of those emotions. My goal with this blog was to share some of my experiences teaching virtually and provide some ideas for any physiology educator that may need them.

References

Standards from the Quality Matters Higher Education Rubric, Sixth Edition. Quality Matters. Retrieved from Specific Review Standards from the QM Higher Education Rubric, Sixth Edition

  • Munsell, S. E., O’Malley, L. & Mackey, C. (2020). Coping with COVID. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 31(3), 101-109.
  • Murphy, L., Eduljee, N. B., Croteau, K. College Student Transition to Synchronous Virtual Classes during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Northeastern United States. Pedagogical Research,5(4), em0078. https://doi.org/10.29333/pr/8485
Dr. Terson de Paleville teaches Advanced Exercise Physiology, Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology, and Human Physiology courses. Her research interests include motor control and exercise-induced neuroplasticity. In particular, Dr. Terson de Paleville has investigated the effects of activity-based therapy on respiratory muscles and trunk motor control after spinal cord injury. Additional research project involves the assessment of the effects of exercise training in elementary and middle school students on balance, visual efficiency, motor proficiency, motor control and behavior in the classroom and at home. Dr. Terson de Paleville is interested in elucidating any links between physical activity and academic skills and performance.

 

Poster sessions: not just for Experimental Biology

At the University of Minnesota, we teach a large physiology lecture/lab class directed at nursing and other allied health focused students. Around week 12 or 13 of a 14-week semester, we host a lab exercise we call “Project Day.”  In this lab, students choose a learning objective, from one of the class sessions previously during the semester, and develop a way to teach this learning objective to their student peers.  Students can make a poster, a work of art or a model.  They can compose a song, write a poem or record a video.  The sky is the limit as long as the project relates to a course objective, emphasizes physiology rather than anatomy and demonstrates a good faith effort.

After more than 15 years of project days, I have experienced an amazing variety of topics and approaches.  I heard about the cardiac cycle in a song called “It’s how your heart works” sung by the Lady Lub Dubs.  Cookies can be primary and secondary active transport proteins and M & Ms can be Na and K ions.  A beaded bracelet can illustrate the phases of the menstrual cycle. Students can learn about renal physiology by playing a game called “Kidney Land.” Lady Gaga’s song, “Poker Face”, can be turned into a parody about the SRY gene. Pipe cleaners can be converted into contractile apparatus. Beer caps can be calcium ions.  The functions of the autonomic nervous system can be dramatized in a play in which Mr. Sympathetic and Mrs. Parasympathetic are in divorce court because they cannot agree on anything.

Over the years, what I have enjoyed the most were the poster presentations.  A song or a video can be a one-way performance but the posters spark interactions. Students stand by their posters during half the class, the TAs and the faculty circulate around the lab rooms.  At the half way point we call “Switch” and the second half of students present as the first presenters circulate. The beauty of project day is the conversations sparked by all those posters.  Conversations about the difference between negative and positive feedback, the difference between skeletal and smooth muscle, the difference between graded potentials and action potentials and the difference between steroid and peptide hormones.

During Project Day, the lab is brimming with enthusiastic questions.

·         Do both cardiac and skeletal muscles have troponin? 

·         Are gamma motor neurons involved in the stretch reflex?

·         Can you help me understand why norepinephrine stimulates the heart but inhibits the intestines?

·         When does the menstrual cycle go from negative feedback to positive feedback?

·         Why do you need a bigger stimulus during the relative refractory period?

·         Are you telling me that T3 works just like the steroids?  How did I not know that?

As I circulated through the lab, I often asked, “why did you choose this topic?”

Sometimes students would say, “I picked this topic because I already knew it and felt confident about it”.  Through my smile, I felt a twinge of sadness that the student decided to play it safe.  More often, a student would say, “Well because I didn’t understand it and I wanted to.”  Or they might say, “I got this wrong on the last exam and I want to make sure I get it right on the final.”

My next question was, “Do you understand it now?”  A beaming smile would show me their answer.

At the end of the lab, we ask the students to engage in a metacognition exercise.  After viewing the posters and other projects we ask, “Can you list three concepts that are still “muddy” for you?  Are there three concepts that you realize you need to study more for the final?”  We ask the students to write down those three concepts and then we ask them to promise that they will intentionally include those three concepts in their studying for the cumulative final exam.

During the Spring of 2020, we suddenly had to switch gears.  The students submitted videos or PowerPoint slides of their projects.  They were posted on the learning management site and students were invited to view them.  Unfortunately, Project Day was not the same. We were missing a vital component……….the conversation! 

What will we do this semester?  We are going to ask the students to make a poster and take a picture of it or craft a poster from one power point slide to present on Zoom (https://zoom.us/).  The students will be sent to breakout rooms and given the ability to share their posters.  TA will be assigned to break out rooms to coordinate the poster presentations of the students.  We are thinking about groups of 8-10 students.  With 5-minute presentations and 5 minutes of questions for each poster, it should take 40-50 minutes.  We will scramble the groups and have them present again. We will grade based on a simple rubric: did it address a learning objective, did it emphasize physiology, was it a good faith effort.

I can imagine that a poster session in zoom breakout sessions could lend themselves to a number of presentation types.  Students could present on famous physiologists, on their own lab work or on a pathophysiologic application of a physiologic concept.  Instructors could adjust their grading rubrics accordingly to meet their specific learning outcomes.

This activity would not have to be done synchronously either.  Students could record a 5-minute presentation of their poster using a software called Flipgrid (https://info.flipgrid.com/). Students could upload their poster into Flipgrid, record their video and view the videos of others.   This software then permits students to post a video response or question.  Students could post a video, comment on 4 other videos and then return to record follow up videos, answering the questions of their peers about their own projects.  This would make a great final project in a lab or a class. 

Synchronous or asynchronous, the important element is that student poster sessions get students talking. As our friend Mary Pat Wenderoth often says, “The students who are doing the talking are the students who are doing the learning.” 

Lisa Carney Anderson is an Associate Professor and Director of Education in the Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology at the University of Minnesota. She completed her doctoral training in muscle physiology at the University of Minnesota. She directs the first year medical physiology course. She also teaches nurse anesthesia students, dental students and undergraduates. She is the 2012 recipient of the Didactic Instructor of the Year Award from the American Association of Nurse Anesthesia.  She co-authored a physiology workbook called Cells to Systems: Critical thinking exercises in Physiology, Kendall Hunt Press. Dr. Anderson’s teaching interests include encouraging active learning through retrieval and assessment of student reflection.  She serves on APS Teaching Section Steering Committee as Secretary.

“Zoom” into data analysis with JupyterLab
Inimary Toby-Ogundeji, PhD
Assistant Professor
University of Dallas

The use of JupyterLab notebook provides a user-friendly method for learning data analysis.  It is easy to work with and also provides a variety of datasets for direct use and case study data discussions.  One example follow-up task that can be used to extend this data analysis activity is performing logistic regression.  An example approach using Firth’s logistic regression method is provided here (https://bit.ly/31gb7vG).  JupyterLab provides a temporary workspace to accomplish basic tasks in R.  One consideration is that it doesn’t maintain the user’s data and/or work once they close the browser.  Analysis performed in JupyterLab cannot be saved to the virtual platform, however files from the work session can be exported out and saved externally.  For users wanting to have the capabilities of saving work sessions and transferring between JupyterLab sessions in a streamlined manner, they can establish a freely available account.

The activity described in this article highlight a user-friendly method to learn some basic data analysis skills.  It is ideal for students with little to no experience in Biostatistics, Bioinformatics or Data Science.  The article provides an opportunity for students to reflect and practice analysis of data collected from biological experiments within an online learning environment.  The activity is suitable for an instructor led session (using an app with screen sharing capabilities). This article provides basic knowledge about how to use R for simple data analysis using the JupyterLab virtual notebook platform.

The goal of this activity is to familiarize the user with the basic steps for importing a data file, retrieval of file contents and generating a histogram using R within a JupyterLab environment.  The workflow steps to accomplish these tasks are outlined below:

  • Access JupyterLab
  • Access “R”
  • Access datasets
  • Perform summary statistics
  • Data visualization

Workflow Step-by-Step instructions and screenshots from JupyterLab

1. Access JupyterLab
a. Login to JupyterLab here: https://mybinder.org/v2/gh/jupyterlab/jupyterlab-demo/try.jupyter.org?urlpath=lab

Home page of JupyterLab Notebook

2. Access “R”

a) Select the (+) symbol at the top left of the JupyterLab screen;

b) Select R

R Console

3. Access the dataset

a) Select the directory titled: “UPMC_cohort”;

b) Identify the filename “meta.csv”.

c) Type data<-read.csv(“meta.csv”,header=TRUE, stringsAsFactors-FALSE)

d) Click run

e) Type data

f) Click run

Dataset from “meta.csv”

4. Perform summary statistics (on variable Cigarette_Pack_Years)

a) Type str(data)

b) Click run

c) Type data$Cigarette_Pack_Years

d) Click run

e) Type summary (data$Cigarette_Pack_Years)

f) Click run

Datatypes for each variable in dataset
Summary statistics

5. Draw a histogram using the “hist” function

a) Type hist(data$Cigarette_Pack_Years, 100, main=”Use of Cigarette (in years)”, xlab=Cigarette Pack Years”, ylab”Frequency”)

b) Click run

Histogram

References:
JupyterLab- https://jupyterlab.readthedocs.io/en/latest/getting_started/overview.html

R programming- https://www.r-project.org/

Github- https://github.com/initoby/JupyterLab_R_basics/blob/master/PECOP

Dr. Toby holds a PhD in Biomedical Sciences (specialization in Organ Systems Biology) from Ohio State University, College of Medicine. Her postdoctoral training was in Functional Genomics at the FAA-Civil Aerospace Medical Institute in Oklahoma City.  She is currently an Assistant Professor of Biology at University of Dallas.  She teaches several courses including: Human Biology, Bioinformatics and Biostatistics.  She enjoys mentoring undergraduate students and is an active member of The APS. Dr. Toby’s research program at UD is focused on cell signaling consequences that occur at the cellular/molecular interface of lung diseases. She is also leveraging the use of computational methods to assess immune sequencing and other types of high throughput sequencing data as a means to better understand lung diseases.

Evolution of Teaching Physiology and Accommodating Social Distancing
Andrew M. Roberts, M.S., Ph.D., FAPS
Associate Professor
Department of Physiology
University of Louisville School of Medicine
Louisville, KY

Our graduate physiology courses at the University of Louisville School of Medicine evolved from a lecture-based format supplemented by recitation sessions and modules for each topic.  Students work in groups to identify learning issues and discuss concepts needed to understand and solve assigned questions.  They present their findings to the class and respond to questions from faculty and students.  We found this to be an important forum whereby students gain experience applying their physiological knowledge. 

An additional step that fostered student understanding was problem-based learning modules where student groups discussed and answered exam type questions.  For the “pre-test” component, each group discussed and chose their answers together.  This was followed by a “post-test” with different but, similar questions answered by each student individually.  Our metrics clearly indicated students’ ability to apply their knowledge increased significantly.

Another component which bolstered student performance and encouraged use of multiple resources for information was online quiz questions for each learning module.  Questions were made available on “Blackboard” and answered according to a schedule.  Students received notification whether they answered correctly and could change their answer choices within an allotted time.  Team-based learning with activities that encouraged students to incorporate multiple information sources improved students’ grasp of physiological concepts and mechanisms.

In summary, we developed ways to effectively engage our students who have diverse educational backgrounds and learning preferences.  It is important to note that the classroom environment, with face to face instruction, provides the opportunity to teach and motivate students through interactions with faculty members and fellow students.  However, other types of activities work well to augment and encourage student learning.

In the last year, our faculty has been discussing the possibility and usefulness of supplementing our program with online course options that could enhance students’ academic backgrounds whether they were on or off campus.  Online learning has become prevalent as another teaching tool for a diverse student group and accommodates a variety of learning preferences.  It offers flexibility whether used to supplement a “classroom” physiology course, or course taught exclusively online.  Over the last year, our experience with online learning platforms indicated instructors could teach to an entire class simultaneously. 

Students can be divided into discussion groups for problem-based learning and instructors can virtually interact by “joining” the groups.  In addition, the platforms allow everyone to be seen and to be heard.  Furthermore, it is easy to link slide as well as video presentations and record class sessions.  Traditionally, we posted lecture notes and supplemental material on “Blackboard” for students to read before class and provided access to recorded lectures.  There also is a forum for students to interact with each other and faculty members. 

Educational methods are ever changing and can go forward and back again.  With this in mind, online learning is not necessarily a replacement for face-to-face learning but, can be an additional learning tool.  Even faculty less familiar with online learning have found the latest learning platforms to be relatively easy to use and actually to enhance their teaching styles.  A key ingredient to the success of our program, is having designated faculty members and staff available as teaching resources!  With the necessity for implementing social distancing during the COVID- 19 pandemic, online learning and video conferencing allowed us to continue and sustain our courses and academic program during this difficult time hopefully without jeopardizing student lifelong learning.

Andrew M. Roberts, MS, PhD, FAPS is an Associate Professor in the Department of Physiology at the University of Louisville School of Medicine in Louisville, Kentucky.  He received his PhD in Physiology at New York Medical College and completed a postdoctoral training program in heart and vascular diseases, as well as, a Parker B. Francis Fellowship in Pulmonary Research at the University of California, San Francisco at the Cardiovascular Research Institute.  His research focuses on cardiopulmonary regulatory mechanisms with an emphasis on neural control, microcirculation, and effects of local endogenous factors.  Current studies include microvascular responses altered by inflammatory diseases and conditions, which can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome.  Additional studies include obstructive sleep apnea.  He teaches physiology to graduate, medical, and dental students and has served as a course director as well as having taught allied health students.

A Sabbatical in Australia Cut Short and the Rapid Transition of Course Delivery of an Australian University due to the COVID-19 Global Pandemic
Emilio Badoer, PhD
Professor of Neuropharmacology
School of Health & Biomedical Science with the College of Science, Engineering & Health
Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University, Bundoora (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia)

Patricia A. Halpin, PhD
Associate Professor of Biological Science and Biotechnology & Visiting Associate Professor at RMIT University
Department of Life Sciences, University of New Hampshire at Manchester (Manchester, NH)

I was thrilled to spend my sabbatical performing education research at RMIT University in Australia during the spring semester of 2020. I met my collaborator Emilio Badoer at the APS ITL in 2016 and at that time we vowed to collaborate someday. I had a smooth flight to Melbourne AU and as we left the airport, I got my first view of the city covered in a smoky haze from the bushfires to the north1. The radio broadcast playing on the car stereo was alerting everyone to the tropical cyclones headed for the east coast and these would soon cause massive flooding in New South Wales. “Welcome to Australia” Emilio said, little did we know at the time that the worst was yet to come. The COVID-19 outbreak in China had caused Australia to close its borders on February 12,3 to foreign nationals who had left or transited through mainland China.  I arrived February 9 and the focus of my attention was the excitement and anticipation of starting our two research projects.  At my small college, my courses usually enroll 10-24 students, at RMIT our first study was working with a large nursing class (n =368) with the primary goal of using Twitter to engage them outside of class with the course content. 

The nursing cohort started two weeks prior to the start of the term, and in the third week, the students went on clinical placements for five weeks. This course is team-taught and Emilio taught during the first two-week period so that content was the focus of our research for this study. We designed the study to collect data using paper surveys to be distributed at face-to-face class meetings at the beginning and end of the term to ensure a high rate of survey completion. The second study performed with his Pharmacology of Therapeutics class (n=140) started on March 2 with one face-to-face meeting followed by four weeks of flipped teaching (FT). During the FT period, we would engage them on Twitter with course content and they would meet during weekly face-to-face Lectorial sessions for review during the usual scheduled class time.  Students completed the paper pre-survey in the first class meeting and the scheduled paper post-surveys were to be distributed during the final Lectorial sessions on March 19 and 20.  Then on Monday March 16th everything changed; Victoria declared a state of emergency to combat the COVID-19 pandemic4 and Qantas announced that they would cancel 90% of their international flights5, with the remaining flights cancelled on March 31. 

I was contacted by friends and family back home urging me to come home right away. RMIT announced the decision that learning would go online starting March 23. In the United States, colleges had previously announced that students heading home for spring break should stay home as their classes would be delivered online due to the COVID-19 concerns 6. The faculty at the US schools had spring break to prepare the transition of their course content for the new delivery mode. At RMIT, they had recently started their semester with no spring break normally scheduled and the only break on the horizon was the distant Easter holiday (April 10-13) long weekend. Our hopes for data collection were quickly dashed as during the last Lectorial sessions only a few students attended, and we would not be able to survey the nursing students in person when they returned from placements.

My focus shifted to leaving the country as soon as possible. The only way to change my airline ticket home was through a travel agent and my personal travel agent spent a total of 11.5 h on hold with Qantas over a two-day period to secure my ticket home. I left Australia with hordes of anxious Americans. The airports were overwhelmed as we formed long lines trying to check in and then go through security. Everyone had a story to tell of how they had to cut their trip short and then changed their tickets. In Los Angeles I was joined by more Americans who were coming from New Zealand. Many of the American travelers were undergraduates very disappointed that their universities had called them home and they were leaving their semester abroad adventures. We would all soon arrive home safely to a country living in a new reality.

Meanwhile, in Australia, the situation at universities evolved rapidly. In line with the Australian Government mandate, students were told that all new arrivals into the country must self-isolate for 14 days effective March 16. Public gatherings of over 500 people were no longer allowed. Although universities were specifically exempt from this requirement, RMIT University proactively cancelled or postponed any events that were not related to the core business of learning, teaching and research. It also foreshadowed a progressive transition to lectures being delivered online where possible.  The University also indicated that students would not be disadvantaged if they chose not to attend face-to-face classes during the week of March 16. In response to the rapid changes occurring internationally, on March 20, the Australian Government restricted all non-Australian citizens and non-Australian residents from entering the country.  While Australian Universities could remain open and operating it was clear that this would not last for long 7. In response, RMIT University mandated that from Monday March 23 lectures were to be made available online but tutorials and seminars and non-specialist workshops could continue face-to-face until March 30.

On Sunday March 22 the State Government of Victoria (where the main RMIT University campus is based) mandated the shutdown of all non-essential activity from Tuesday March 24 to combat the spread of COVID-19 7. Immediately, RMIT University suspended all face-to-face learning and teaching activity on all its Australian campuses. Overnight, faculty became online teaching facilitators. Emilio produced and is continuing to produce new videos (15-30 minutes duration) covering the content normally delivered during the face-to-face large lecture session. Each week 3-5 videos are produced and uploaded onto Canvas (RMIT’s online learning management system) for the students. 

Unlike many of the US schools that are using Zoom, RMIT is using Collaborate Ultra within Canvas as its way of connecting with students on a weekly basis. Collaborate Ultra has the ability to create breakout groups and faculty can assign students to a specific breakout group or allow students to self-allocate to a specific breakout group. Emilio has allowed students to move between breakout groups to increase engagement. The only stipulation was to limit the group size usually to no more than six. Each student was originally registered to attend one small group Lectorial session that meets once per week for one hour and these groups have between 45-50 students each. The Lectorials were replaced by Collaborate Ultra sessions that were organized for the same times and dates as the normally scheduled small Lectorial sessions. The students and facilitators would all meet in the so-called “main room” where Emilio would outline the plans for the session. The main room session was conducted with Emilio’s video turned on so the students were ‘invited “into his home” and could feel connected with him. Dress code was also important. Emilio was conscious of wearing smart casual apparel as he would have worn had he been facing the students in a face-to-face session. In this way he attempted to simulate the normal pre-COVID-19 environment.

Following the introductory remarks outlining the tasks for the session, students were ‘sent’ to their breakout rooms to discuss and work on the first problem / task discussed in the main room. The analogy used by Emilio was that the breakout rooms were akin to the tables that were used in their collaborative teaching space in which he normally conducted the Lectorial sessions. Each table in that space accommodated approximately six students (hence the stipulation of no more than six in each breakout group). Emilio and another moderator ‘popped’ into each breakout room to guide and facilitate the students in their discussions. To date, the level of engagement and discussion amongst the students themselves generally appears to be much greater than that observed at face-to-face sessions which was a fantastic surprise. After a set time had elapsed, students re-assembled in the main room where the task was discussed with the whole class. This ensured that all students understood the requirements of the task and they had addressed all points that were needed to complete the task to the satisfactory standard. Next followed another task that differed from the first providing variety and maintaining the interest of the students.

Examples of tasks performed.

1 – Practice exam questions

A short answer question requiring a detailed response that would normally take at least 10 minutes in an exam environment to answer properly. Such questions were based on that week’s lecture (now video) course content and was contextualized in a scenario in which physiological/pathophysiological conditions were described and the pharmacological treatments needed to be discussed in terms of mechanisms of action, adverse effects, potential drug interactions or pharmacogenomic influences etc.

2 – Multiple choice questions – Quizzes

Emilio ran these using the Kahoot platform. By sharing his screen, Emilio could conduct such quizzes live providing instant feedback on student progress. This allowed Emilio to provide formative feedback, correct any misconceptions and discuss topics. Additionally, students were able to gauge their own learning progress. These tasks were performed in the main room with all participants.

3 – Completing sentences or matching answers

These could be done effectively in the breakout rooms, where a ‘lead’ student could utilize the whiteboard function in Collaborate Ultra which allowed all students in the group the opportunity to write on the whiteboard allowing discussion regarding the answers written.

4 – Filling in the gaps

Here Emilio would share his screen in which a diagram / figure / a schematic of a pathway etc. with labels/ information missing was provided and students were asked to screenshot the shared information. Then in breakout rooms, one student shared the captured screen shot with the group and the missing information was completed by the members of the group.

The Collaborate Ultra sessions were also utilized to provide students with a platform in which group work could be performed. With a lockdown in force and gatherings of groups forbidden, this utility was very important for enabling connection between students working on group projects. It also provided a sense of belonging within the student cohort.

In conclusion, with minimal preparation, a huge Australian University converted face-to-face teaching and learning to an online digital teaching and learning environment where working remotely was the new norm. It is almost inconceivable just a few short weeks ago that such a transformation could have happened in the timeframe that it did. It is a truly remarkable achievement.  

References

1 Alexander, H and Moir N. (December 20, 2019). ‘The monster’: a short history of Australia’s biggest forest fire. Sydney Morning Herald Retrieved on April 10, 2020 from https://www.smh.com.au/national/nsw/the-monster-a-short-history-of-australia-s-biggest-forest-fire-20191218-p53l4y.html

2 Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) (Jan. 30, 2020). Retrieved on April 10, 2020 from https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/30-01-2020-statement-on-the-second-meeting-of-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-emergency-committee-regarding-the-outbreak-of-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)

3 Travel Restrictions on China Due to COVID-19 (April 6, 2020). Retrieved on April 10, 2020 from https://www.thinkglobalhealth.org/article/travel-restrictions-china-due-covid-19

4 Premier of Victoria, State of Emergency Declared in Victoria Over COVID-19. (March 16, 2020) Retrieved on April 10, 2020 from https://www.premier.vic.gov.au/state-of-emergency-declared-in-victoria-over-covid-19/

5 Qantas and Jetstar slash 90 per cent of international flights due to corona virus (March 16, 2020). Retrieved on April 10, 2020 from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-03-17/qantas-coronavirus-cuts-capacity-by-90-per-cent/12062328

6 Hartocollis A. (March 11, 2020). ‘An Eviction Notice’: Chaos After Colleges Tell Students to Stay Away. The New York Times. Retrieved on April 10, 2020 from  https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/11/us/colleges-cancel-classes-coronavirus.html

7 Worthington B (March 22, 2020). Coronavirus crackdown to force mass closures of pubs, clubs, churches and indoor sporting venues. Retrieved on April 10, 2020 from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-03-22/major-coronavirus-crackdown-to-close-churches-pubs-clubs/12079610

Professor Badoer has held numerous teaching and learning leadership roles including many years as the Program Coordinator for the undergraduate Pharmaceutical Sciences Program at RMIT University in Bundoora AU and he coordinates several courses. He is an innovative instructor that enjoys the interactions with students and teaching scholarship. He has also taught pharmacology and physiology at Melbourne and Monash Universities. In addition, he supervises several postgraduate students, Honours students and Postdoctoral Fellows.

Patricia A. Halpin is an Associate Professor in the Life Sciences Department at the University of New Hampshire at Manchester (UNHM). Patricia received her MS and Ph.D. in Physiology at the University of Connecticut. She completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Dartmouth Medical School. After completion of her postdoc she started a family and taught as an adjunct at several NH colleges. She then became a Lecturer at UNHM before becoming an Assistant Professor. She teaches Principles of Biology, Endocrinology, Cell Biology, Animal Physiology, Global Science Explorations and Senior Seminar to undergraduates. She has been a member of APS since 1994 and is currently on the APS Education committee and is active in the Teaching Section. She has participated in Physiology Understanding (PhUn) week at the elementary school level in the US and Australia. She has presented her work on PhUn week, Using Twitter for Science Discussions, and Embedding Professional Skills into Science curriculum at the Experimental Biology meeting and the APS Institute on Teaching and Learning.

Challenges of migrating online amid the COVID-19 pandemic
Ida T. Fonkoue, Ph.D.
Post-Doctoral Fellow, Renal Division
Emory University School of Medicine

Ramon A. Fonkoue, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, French and Cultural Studies
Michigan Technological University

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a total and sudden reshaping of the academic landscape across the country, with hundreds of institutions moving administration entirely online and shifting to online instruction for the remainder of the spring semester or for both spring and summer. This sudden transition with practically no time to prepare has major implications for students and faculty alike, and poses serious challenges to a smooth transition as well as effective online teaching on such a large scale. Out of these challenges, two issues in particular are examined here: 

By Phil Hill, licensed under CC-BY. See URL in references.
  • the disparity in resources and preparedness for effective online teaching 
  • the implications of the migration to virtual classrooms for diversity and inclusion

Disparity in resources and preparedness for effective online teaching

Teaching an online course requires just as much, if not more, time and energy as traditional classroom courses. It also requires specific IT skills to be effective. Some teachers have managed to achieve great success engaging students online. However, many challenges remain for the average teacher. While online teaching has now been embraced by all higher education institutions and the number of classes offered online has seen a steady growth over the years, it should be noted that until now, instructors and students had the choice between brick and mortar classes and virtual ones. Each could then choose based on their personal preferences and/or circumstances. What makes the recent changes so impactful and consequential is that no choice is left to instructors or students, as the move to online classes is a mandate from the higher administration. Whether one is willing, prepared or ready is irrelevant. It is from this perspective that the question of the preparedness to migrate online is worth examining. 

With academic units ordered to move classes online, instructors who had remained indifferent to the growing trend of online teaching have had a difficult reckoning. They have had to hastily move to online delivery, often with a steep learning curve. This challenge has been compounded in some cases by the technology gap for instructors who haven’t kept their IT skills up to date as well as the school’s preparedness to support online teaching. But even instructors who had some familiarity with learning management systems (LMS) and online delivery have faced their share of challenges. We will only mention two sources of these difficulties: 

  • First, students’ expectations in a context of exclusive online teaching are different from when most online classes took place in the summer, and were attractive to students because of convenience and flexibility. With online classes becoming the norm, students in some universities are taking steps to demand that school administrators pay more attention to quality of instruction and maintain high standards to preserve teaching effectiveness. 
  • Second, instructors can no longer use LMS resources just for the flexibility and benefits they afforded, such as in blended classes or flipped classes. Moving everything online thus requires extra work even for LMS enthusiasts.

For students, there have been some interesting lessons. Until now, it was assumed that Generation Z students (raised in the boom of the internet and social media) we have in our classes have tech skills in their DNA and would be well equipped and ready to migrate online. Surprisingly, this hasn’t been the case across the board, and these first weeks have revealed real discrepancies in student IT equipment with varying consequences for online classes. Equipment failure and problems with access to high speed internet emerge as the most serious difficulties on the students’ side. Furthermore, online learning requires independence and often more self-discipline and self-motivation. Most online courses are not taught in real time, and there are often no set times for classes. While this flexibility makes online classes attractive, it can also be a drawback for students who procrastinate and are unable to follow the course pace. If left to themselves, only the most responsible students will preserve their chances of performing well. On this last point, one unexpected issue has been students who have virtually disappeared from their classes since the migration of courses online amid the COVID-19 pandemic. The current transition has thus presented major challenges for teachers and students alike. 

Implications of the migration to virtual classrooms for diversity and inclusion

The second issue we think deserves attention is the way in which educational institutions’ commitment to diversity and inclusion would play out in virtual classes. While they are now among the professed core values of all colleges and universities across the country, implementing diversity and inclusion in an online environment presents a different set of challenges for both instructors and students. In traditional classrooms, the commitment to diversity and inclusion typically translates into the following:

  • A diversity and inclusion statement from the school must be included in the course syllabus.
  • Instructors must remind students a few rules at the beginning of the course, including: recognition that the classroom is an environment where diversity is acknowledged and valued; tolerance of and respect for diversity of views in the classroom.
  • Sensitivity to and respect for diversity (gender, age, sexual orientation, etc.).
  • Students are asked to be courteous and respectful of different opinions.

In moving into a virtual environment, instructors have to think about the challenges of virtual classrooms and their potential impact on diversity and inclusion. For instance, the faceless nature of course participation and asynchronous delivery may make it easier for participants to disregard or neglect diversity and inclusion rules. Teachers need to reflect on ways to ensure that the virtual space of online classes remains an environment that fosters diversity and inclusion. One drawback of online classes is the potential impact of the relative anonymity on social engagement. In a traditional classroom, participants are constrained by the physical presence of their peers in the confined space of the classroom. The closed physical space of the classroom, combined with the instructor’s authority and peer pressure contribute to fostering discipline. Reflecting on the way online teaching impacts the instructor, one faculty noted: “I didn’t realize how much I rely on walking around the room and making eye contact with students to keep them engaged.” As an online teacher, one lacks the ability to connect physically with students, to read emotional cues and body language that might inform about the individuality of a student. Moreover, a good grasp of the diversity in the classroom and of students’ learning abilities is needed to plan instruction, and give each of them the opportunity to learn and succeed.

Drawing from the above considerations, here are some key questions that instructors should consider as they migrate online: What skills do instructors need to properly address diversity and inclusion online? How do instructors include diversity and inclusion requirements in online course design? How to create an inclusive online classroom? How do instructors attend to diverse students’ needs during instruction? How do they monitor behaviors and enforce diversity and inclusion rules during instruction?

While the migration might have been abrupt, instructors need not seek perfection in moving their courses online. As in traditional classes, what matters the most, from the student’s point of view, is constant communication, clear directions and support from their teachers. Students understand the challenges we all face. They also understand the rules in virtual classes, provided we emphasize them.

References

Hill, Phil (2020), Massive Increase in LMS and Synchronous Video Usage Due to COVID-19. PhilonEdTech. https://philonedtech.com/massive-increase-in-lms-and-synchronous-video-usage-due-to-covid-19/

Greeno, Nathan (2020), Prepare to Move Online (in a Hurry). Inside Higher Ed. https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2020/03/10/prepare-move-online-continuity-planning-coronavirus-and-beyond-opinion


McMurtrie, Beth (2020), The Coronavirus Has Pushed Courses Online. Professors Are Trying Hard to Keep Up. The Chronicle of Higher Education. https://www.chronicle.com/article/The-Coronavirus-Has-Pushed/248299

Dr Ida Fonkoué is a post-doctoral fellow at Emory University School of Medicine in the Laboratory of Dr Jeanie Park. She trained under Dr Jason Carter at Michigan Technological University, where she graduated with a PhD in Biological Sciences in December 2016. She teaches renal physiology classes and lead small groups in the School of Medicine. Her long-term research goal is to understand how the sympathetic nervous system, the vasculature and inflammation interplay to contribute to the high cardiovascular disease risk of patients living with chronic stress, such as those with post-traumatic stress disorder.

Dr. Ramon A Fonkoué is an Associate Professor of French and Cultural Studies and the Director of Graduate Studies in the Department of Humanities at Michigan Technological University. He is also a Visiting Scholar in the department of French and Italian at Emory University. He has been teaching online for 9 years and has experience with blended, flipped and full online classes.

Do You Want To Be On TV?

Last summer, some colleagues and I published a paper on how high school students can communicate their understanding of science through songwriting.  This gradually led to a press release from my home institution, and then (months later) a feature article in a local newspaper, and then appearances on Seattle TV stations KING-5 and KOMO-4.

It’s been an interesting little journey.  I haven’t exactly “gone viral” — I haven’t been adding hundreds of new Twitter followers, or anything like that — but even this mild uptick in interest has prompted me to ponder my relationship with the news media. In short, I do enjoy the attention, but I also feel some responsibility to influence the tone and emphases of these stories. In this post, I share a few bits of advice based on my recent experiences, and I invite others to contribute their own tips in the comments section.

(1) Find out how your school/department/committee views media appearances.  In April, I was invited to appear on KING’s mid-morning talk show, which sounded cool, except that the show would be taped during my normal Thursday physiology lecture!  My department chair and my dean encouraged me to do the show, noting that this sort of media exposure is generally good for the school, and so, with their blessing, I got a sub and headed for the studio.

(2) Respect students’ privacy during classroom visits.  After some students were included in a classroom-visit video despite promises to the contrary, I realized that I needed to protect their privacy more strongly. I subsequently established an option by which any camera-shy students could live-stream the lecture until the TV crew left.

(3) Anticipate and explicitly address potential misconceptions about what you’re doing.  I’ve worried that these “singing professor” pieces might portray the students simply as amused audience members rather than as active participants, so, during the classroom visits, I’ve used songs that are conducive to the students singing along and/or analyzing the meaning of the lyrics. (Well, mostly. “Cross-Bridges Over Troubled Water” wasn’t that great for either, but I had already sung “Myofibrils” for KING, and KOMO deserved an exclusive too, right?)

(4) Take advantage of your institution’s public relations expertise.  Everett Community College’s director of public relations offered to help me rehearse for the talk show — and boy am I glad that she did!  Being familiar with the conventions and expectations of TV conversations, Katherine helped me talk much more pithily than I normally do. In taking multiple cracks at her practice question about “how did you get started [using music in teaching]?” I eventually pared a meandering 90-second draft answer down to 30 seconds. She also asked me a practice question to which my normal response would be, “Can you clarify what you mean by X?” — and convinced me that in a 4-minute TV conversation, you don’t ask for clarifications, you just make reasonable assumptions and plow ahead with your answers.

(5) Ask your interviewers what they will want to talk about. Like a novice debater, I struggle with extemporaneous speaking; the more I can prepare for specific questions, the better.  Fortunately, my interviewers have been happy to give me a heads-up about possible questions, thus increasing their chances of getting compelling and focused answers.

Readers, what other advice would you add to the above?

Gregory J. Crowther, PhD has a BA in Biology from Williams College, a MA in Science Education from Western Governors University, and a PhD in Physiology & Biophysics from the University of Washington. He teaches anatomy and physiology in the Department of Life Sciences at Everett Community College. His peer-reviewed journal articles on enhancing learning with content-rich music have collectively been cited over 100 times.

An inventory of meaningful lives of discovery

by Jessica M. Ibarra

I always had this curiosity about life. Since the very beginning, always wanting to understand how animals’ breathe, how they live, how they move. All that was living was very interesting. – Dr. Ibarra

“I always had this curiosity about life and I wanted to become a doctor, but my parent told me it was not a good idea,” Lise Bankir explained in her interview for the Living History Project of the American Physiological Society (APS).  The video interview (video length: 37.14 min.) is part of a rich collection over 100 senior members of the APS who have made outstanding contributions to the science of physiology and the profession. 

The archive gives us great insight into how these scientists chose their fields of study.  As Dr. Bankir, an accomplished renal physiologist, explain how she ended up “studying the consequences of vasopressin on the kidney.”  She describes her work in a 1984 paper realizing “high protein was deleterious for the kidney, because it induces hyperfiltration,” which of course now we accept that high protein accelerates the progression of kidney disease. Later she describes her Aha! moment, linking a high protein diet to urea concentration, while on holiday. 

“It came to my mind that this adverse effect of high protein diet was due to the fact that the kidney not only to excrete urea (which is the end product of proteins), but also to concentrate urea in the urine.  Because the plasma level of urea is already really low and the daily load of urea that humans excrete need that urea be concentrated about 100-fold (in the urine with respect to plasma).” 

Other interviews highlight how far ahead of their time other scientists were.  As is the case when it comes to being way ahead of teaching innovations and active learning in physiology with  Dr. Beverly Bishop.  In her video interview, you can take inspiration from her 50 years of teaching neurophysiology to physical therapy and dental students at SUNY in New York (video length: 1 hr. 06.09 min.).  Learn about how she met her husband, how she started her career, and her time in Scotland.  Dr. Bishop believed students could learn better with experimental laboratory activities and years ahead of YouTube, she developed a series of “Illustrated Lectures in Neurophysiology” available through APS to help faculty worldwide.

She was even way ahead of others in the field of neurophysiology.  Dr. Bishop explains, “everyone knows that they (expiratory muscles) are not very active when you are sitting around breathing quietly, and yet the minute you have to increase ventilation (for whatever reason), the abdominal muscles have to play a part to have active expiration.  So, the question I had to answer was, “How are those muscles smart enough to know enough to turn on?” Her work led to ground breaking work in neural control of the respiratory muscles, neural plasticity, jaw movements, and masticatory muscle activity.

Another interview shed light on a successful career of discovery and their implications to understanding disease, as is the case with the video interview of Dr. Judith S. Bond. She describes the discovery of meprins proteases as her most significant contribution to science (video length: 37.38 min.), “and as you know, both in terms of kidney disease and intestinal disease, we have found very specific functions of the protease.  And uh, one of the functions, in terms of the intestinal disease relates to uh inflammatory bowel disease.  One of the subunits, meprin, alpha subunit, is a candidate gene for IBD and particularly ulcerative colitis. And so that opens up a window to – that might have significance to the treatment of ulcerative colitis.”

Or perhaps you may want to know about the life and research of Dr. Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen, the first woman president of the APS (video length: 1 hr. 18.07 min.) and daughter of August and Marie Krogh.  In her interview, she describes her transition from dentistry to field work to study water balance on desert animals and how she took her family in a van to the Arizona desert and while pregnant developed a desert laboratory and measured water loss in kangaroo rats.  Dr. Schmidt-Nielsen was attracted to the early discoveries she made in desert animals, namely that these animals had specific adaptations to reduce their expenditure of water to an absolute minimum to survive. 

The Living History Project managed to secure video interviews with so many outstanding contributors to physiology including John B. West, Francois Abboud, Charles TiptonBarbara Horwitz, Lois Jane Heller, and L. Gabriel Navar to name a few.  For years to come, the archive provides the opportunity to learn from their collective wisdom, discoveries, family influences, career paths, and entries into science. 

As the 15th anniversary of the project approaches, we celebrate the life, contributions, dedication, ingenuity, and passion for science shared by this distinguished group of physiologists.  It is my hope you find inspiration, renewed interest, and feed your curiosity for science by taking the time to watch a few of these video interviews. 

Dr. Jessica M. Ibarra is an Assistant Professor of Physiology at Dell Medical School in the Department of Medical Education of The University of Texas at Austin.  She teaches physiology to first year medical students.  She earned her B.S. in Biology from the University of Texas at San Antonio.  Subsequently, she pursued her Ph.D. studies at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio where she also completed a postdoctoral fellowship.  Her research studies explored cardiac extracellular matrix remodeling and inflammatory factors involved in chronic diseases such as arthritis and diabetes.  When she is not teaching, she inspires students to be curious about science during Physiology Understanding Week in the hopes of inspiring the next generation of scientists and physicians. Dr. Ibarra is a native of San Antonio and is married to Armando Ibarra.  Together they are the proud parents of three adult children – Ryan, Brianna, and Christian Ibarra.

Creating Unique Learning Opportunities by Integrating Adaptive Learning Courseware into Supplemental Instruction Sessions

Teaching a large (nearly 400 students), introductory survey course in human anatomy and physiology is a lot like trying to hit a constantly moving target. Once you work out a solution or better path for one issue, a new one takes its place. You could also imagine a roulette wheel with the following slots: student-faculty ratios, student preparation, increasing enrollments, finite resources, limited dissection specimen availability (e.g., cats), textbook prices, online homework, assessment, adaptive courseware, core competencies, learning outcomes, engagement, supplemental instruction, prerequisites, DFW rates, teaching assistants, Dunning Kruger effect, open educational resources, GroupMe, student motivation, encouraging good study habits, core concepts, aging equipment … and the list goes on.

If the ball lands on your slot, are you a winner or loser?

Before getting ahead of myself, I need to provide an overview of A&P at the University of Mississippi. Fall semesters start with 390 students enrolled in A&P I within one lecture section, 13 lab sections at 30 students each, anywhere from 10-13 undergraduate teaching assistants, 2 supplemental instruction (SI) leaders, and at least six, one-hour SI sessions each week. The unusual class size and number of lab sections is the result of maxing out lecture auditorium as well as lab classroom capacities. I am typically the only instructor during the fall (A&P I) and spring (A&P II) terms, while a colleague teaches during the summer terms. The two courses are at the sophomore-level and can be used to fulfill general education requirements. There are no prerequisites for A&P I, but students must earn a C or better in A&P I to move on to A&P II. Approximately one-third of the students are allied health (e.g., pre-nursing) and nutrition majors, one-third are exercise science majors, and the remaining one-third of students could be majoring in anything from traditional sciences (e.g., Biology, Chemistry, etc.) to mathematics or art.

The university supports a Supplemental Instruction program through the Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (https://cetl.olemiss.edu/supplemental-instruction/). The SI program provides an extra boost for students in historically demanding courses such as freshman biology, chemistry, physics, accounting, etc. SI leaders have successfully passed the courses with a grade of B or better, have been recommended to the program by their professors, agree to attend all lectures for the courses in which they will be an SI leader, and offer three weekly, one-hour guided study sessions that are free to all students enrolled in the course. SI leaders undergo training through Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning and meet weekly with the course professor. Students who regularly attend SI sessions perform one-letter grade higher than students who do not attend SI sessions.

It can be as easy for an instructor to be overwhelmed by the teaching side of A&P as it is for the student to be overwhelmed by the learning side! I know that a major key to student success in anatomy and physiology courses is consistent, mental retrieval practice across multiple formats (e.g., lectures, labs, diagrams, models, dissection specimens, etc.). The more a student practices retrieving and using straightforward information, albeit a lot of it, the more likely a student will develop consistent, correct use. Self-discipline is required to learn that there are multiple examples, rather than one, of “normal” anatomy and physiology. However, few students know what disciplined study means beyond reading the book and going over their notes a few times.

To provide a model for disciplined study that can be used and implemented by all students, I developed weekly study plans for A&P I and II. These study plans list a variety of required as well as optional activities and assignments, many of which are completed using our online courseware (Pearson’s Mastering A&P) and include space for students to write completion dates. If students complete each task, they would spend approximately 10 out-of-class hours in focused, manageable activities such as:

  • Completion of active learning worksheets that correlate to learning outcomes and can be used as flashcards.
  • Practice assignments that can be taken multiple times in preparation for lecture exams and lab practicals.
  • Self-study using the virtual cadaver, photographic atlas of anatomical models, interactive animations of physiological processes, virtual lab experiments, and dissection videos.
  • Regular graded assignments aligned with course learning outcomes.

Weekly study plans are also useful during office visits with students. I can easily assess student progress and identify changes for immediate and long-term improvement. An advantage of using online courseware to support course objectives is the ability to link various elements of the courses (e.g., lecture, lab, SI sessions, online homework, group study, and self-study) with a consistent platform.

All of this sounds like a great sequence of courses, doesn’t it? Yet, the target has kept moving and the roulette wheel has kept spinning. Imagine for the story within this blog that the roulette ball has landed on “using adaptive courseware to improve supplemental instruction.”

In 2016 the University of Mississippi was one of eight universities chosen by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation with support of the Association for Public and Land-Grant Universities to increase the use of adaptive courseware in historically demanding general education courses. Thus, began the university’s PLATO (Personalized Learning & Adaptive Teaching Opportunities) Program (https://plato.olemiss.edu/). The PLATO grant provides support for instructors to effectively incorporate adaptive courseware into their courses and personalize learning for all affected students. Administrators of the grant were particularly supportive of instructors who could use adaptive courseware to support the SI sessions. This challenge was my personal roulette ball.

I decided to use diagnostic results from Mastering A&P graded homework assignments to prepare for weekly meetings with SI leaders. Diagnostic data on percent of University of Mississippi students correctly answering each question as well as percent of UM students answering incorrect options are compared to the global performance of all Mastering A&P users. For each question incorrectly answered by more than 50% of the students, I write a short (4-6 sentences) explanation of where students are making errors in expressing or using their knowledge and how to prevent similar errors in the future. I then searched for active learning activities and teaching tips associated with the challenging questions from the LifeSciTRC (https://www.lifescitrc.org/) and Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS; https://www.hapsweb.org/) websites. I specifically search for active learning exercises that can be conducted in a small, group setting using widely available classroom resources (e.g., white board, sticky notes, the students, etc.).

By using online courseware diagnostics, selecting focused learning activities, and communicating regularly with SI leaders, I was able to create value and unique learning opportunities for each student. The SI session format has been extremely well-received by the students and they immediately see the purpose in the study session experience. The best part is that it takes me only 30-40 minutes each week to write up explanations for the diagnostics and find the best learning activities.

I would say that we are all winners with this spin of the wheel.

Carol Britson received her B.S. from Iowa State University and her M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Memphis. She has been in the Department of Biology at the University of Mississippi for 22 years where she teaches Vertebrate Histology, Human Anatomy, Introductory Physiology, and Human Anatomy and Physiology I and II. In 2018 she received the University of Mississippi Excellence in Teaching award from the PLATO (Personalized Learning & Adaptive Teaching Opportunities) Program supported by the Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Why I’m a Clicker Convert

Recently I was faced with a teaching challenge: how to incorporate active learning in a huge Introductory Biology lecture of 400+ students. After searching for methods that would be feasible, cost effective, and reasonably simple to implement in the auditorium in which I was teaching, I came up with clickers. Our university has a site license for Reef Polling Software which means I wouldn’t add to the cost for my students—they could use any WiFi enabled device or borrow a handset at no cost. I incorporated at least 4 clicker questions into every class and gave students points for completing the questions. 10% of their grade came from clicker questions and students could get full credit for the day if they answered at least 75% of the questions. I did not give them points for correct answers because I wanted to see what they were struggling to understand.

I’m now a clicker convert for the following 3 reasons:

  • Clickers Increase Student Engagement and Attendance

In a class of 400+, it is easy to feel like there is no downside to skipping class since the teacher won’t realize you are gone. By attaching points to completing in-class clicker questions, about 80% of the class attended each day. While I would like perfect attendance, anecdotally this is much better than what my colleagues report for similar classes that don’t use clickers. Students still surfed the internet and slept through class, but there was now more incentive to pay a bit of attention so you didn’t miss the clicker questions. In my opinion, getting to class can be half the battle so the incentive is worth it. In my small classes I like to ask a lot of questions and have students either shout out answers or vote by raising their hands. Often, students won’t all vote or seem to be too embarrassed to choose an answer. I tested out clickers in my small class and found an increased response rate to my questions and that I was more likely to see the full range of student understanding.

  • Clickers Help Identify Student Misconceptions in Real Time

Probably the biggest benefit of clickers to my teaching is getting a better sense of what the students are understanding in real time. Many times I put in questions that I thought were ‘gimmes’ and was surprised to see half the class or more getting them wrong. When that happens, I can try giving them a hint or explaining the problem in a different way, having them talk with their group, and then asking them to re-vote. Since I don’t give points for correctness, students don’t feel as pressured and can focus on trying to understand the question. I’m often surprised that students struggle with certain questions. For instance, when asked whether the inner membrane of the mitochondria increases surface area, volume, or both, only half of the students got the correct answer the first time (picture). Since this is a fundamental concept in many areas of biology, seeing their responses made me take time to really explain the right answer and come up with better ways of explaining and visualizing the concept for future semesters.

  • Clickers Increase Student Learning (I hope)

At the end of the day, what I really hope any active learning strategy I use is doing is helping students better understand the material. To try to facilitate this, I ask students to work in groups to solve the problems. I walk around the class and listen while they solve the problem. This can help me get an idea of their misconceptions, encourage participation, and provide a less scary way for students to ask questions and interact with me. While working in groups they are explaining their reasoning and learning from each other. Interspersing clicker questions also helps to reinforce the material and make sure students stay engaged.

I’m convinced that clickers are helping to improve my teaching and students seem to agree. Of the 320 students who filled out course evaluations one semester, 76 included positive comments about clicker questions. Here are two of my favorites:

“I like how we had the in-class clicker questions because it made me think harder about the material we were learning about in that moment.”

“I enjoyed doing the clicker questions. If the class disagreed with something she would stop and reteach the main point and hope we would understand. That was really helpful on her part.”

I would be remiss if I didn’t end by thanking the many researchers who have studied how to incorporate clickers into your class to maximize learning. I decided to try them after hearing Michelle Smith talk at the first APS Institute on Teaching and Learning and highly recommend seeing her speak if you have the chance. If you only want to read one paper, I suggest the following:

Smith, Michelle K., et al. “Why peer discussion improves student performance on in-class concept questions.” Science 323.5910 (2009): 122-124.

I hope you will comment with how you use clickers or other strategies to engage large lecture classes. For more resources I’ve found helpful designing my classes click here.

Katie Wilkinson, PhD is a newly minted Associate Professor of Biological Sciences at San Jose State University. She completed her undergraduate work in Neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh and her PhD in Biomedical Sciences at the University of California, San Diego. She was an NIH IRACDA Postdoctoral Fellow in Research and Scientific Teaching at Emory University. At SJSU her lab studies the function of stretch sensitive muscle proprioceptors. She teaches Introductory Biology, Vertebrate Neurophysiology, Integrative Physiology, Pain Physiology, and Cardiorespiratory Physiology to undergraduate and masters students.